Business and Finance

GM and Toyota take different electric roads in China By Reuters

© Reuters. FILE PHOTO: Man walks previous a Wuling Hong Guang MINI EV at a SAIC-GM-Wuling dealership in Beijing


By Norihiko Shirouzu

SHANGHAI (Reuters) – Toyota pioneered the world’s most profitable hybrid automotive however in relation to pure electric autos it has some catching as much as do, particularly in China.

The Hong Guang Mini EV, a tiny, no-frills automotive made by a General Motors (NYSE:) three way partnership that prices below $5,000 is a smash hit in the world’s largest automotive market whereas Toyota has but to launch its personal small, low-cost electric automobile in China.

Toyota, the world’s largest carmaker, is about to unveil its answer on the Shanghai auto present on April 19: a brand new common platform for electric autos (EVs) referred to as e-TNGA that can underpin an array of fashions from small runarounds to giant SUVs.

It can even show its idea electric mid-sized sport-utility automobile (SUV), based mostly on the e-TNGA platform, which is about to be bought worldwide inside a few years, two individuals acquainted with Toyota’s plans stated.

Toyota’s executives have lengthy referred to as for a small electric runabout however the truth it’s going first with a mid-sized SUV is an indication of the challenges it nonetheless faces to supply small, low-cost EVs which are additionally aggressive, snug and protected.

With stress rising on carmakers to slash emissions, Toyota is scrambling to supply EVs that may compete globally with the Mini EV, Tesla (NASDAQ:)’s high-end sedans, mid-range fashions from Volkswagen (DE:) and Renault (PA:) and glossy EVs from Chinese startups like and Xpeng.

While Toyota’s Prius hybrid turned a world bestseller, one in all its early efforts to develop a small EV, the eQ, was a flop.

After promoting about 100 eQs in 2012, Toyota ditched it on account of considerations in regards to the limits of EVs, akin to their excessive value, brief vary and lengthy cost time.

The eQ, an electric model of Toyota’s mini iQ, value 3.6 million yen ($33,000), roughly the value of its mid-sized Camry.


One key difficulty in growing an reasonably priced, small EV is the necessity to use electric powertrains which have but to realize parity with their gasoline counterparts, the individuals acquainted with Toyota’s plans stated.

Cramming cumbersome batteries right into a tiny automotive is one other problem.

Many EVs have excessive flooring as a result of the batteries are stacked beneath, leaving automakers the selection of creating vehicles a lot greater to offer passengers ample room, or holding them decrease and sacrificing consolation, the sources stated.

Toyota does not wish to compromise on high quality, consolation or efficiency with its small EV, however it’s conscious it must develop experience in slashing engineering prices to ship such a automobile with a value nicely below $20,000.

That experience is exactly what GM leveraged to make the Mini EV, which might value as little as 28,800 yuan ($4,410).

Its three way partnership, SAIC-GM-Wuling (SGMW), is the largest producer in China of no-frills industrial vans that begin at about 30,000 yuan and it tapped that cost-control know-how.

“Wuling basically has simply had to replace gasoline engines in those commercial vans with simple electric powertrains,” stated Yale Zhang, head of consultancy Automotive Foresight.

He expects gross sales of the the Mini EV and its upscale Macaron model to hit 500,000 this 12 months.

Zhou Xing, a SGMW vice chairman in cost of Wuling and Baojun gross sales and advertising and marketing, stated it was set to roll out 4 small EVs by early 2022 below its manufacturers, taking the mannequin vary to 10 simply as extra rivals enter the market.


The Mini EV additionally cuts corners that might not be allowed in the United States or Europe, underlining the problem Toyota faces in growing a viable rival that handles simply in a crowded metropolis and remains to be excessive in high quality and efficiency.

The Mini EV solely has one air bag, for instance, with none for passengers or on the edges to guard occupants if it rolls.

The automotive has an anti-lock braking system however no stability management expertise regardless that its comparatively tall, stubby profile makes it vulnerable to tipping over when cornering sharply at pace, two individuals acquainted with its growth advised Reuters.

“First of all, the product meets all the vehicle safety requirements of China. The Hong Guang Mini EV is basically a commuting tool, helping people go from point A to B in city traffic. It’s highly unlikely for them to drive this car at high speeds,” stated SGMW’s Zhou.

The no-frills strategy definitely hasn’t dented its enchantment.

Launched in July, cost-conscious Chinese clients and younger, trendy urbanites are snapping up about 100,000 Mini EVs 1 / 4, making it one of many high EV sellers in China.

Some youthful drivers are shopping for it and different Wuling vehicles in half after a video of a Wuling van racing deftly on a twisty mountain highway went viral. For many, seeing a fundamental Chinese van doing difficult manoeuvres tickled their nationwide satisfaction.

“I am proud of what Chinese-made vehicles like Wuling workhorse vans can achieve,” stated Huang Peixian, 26, a small enterprise proprietor in town of Shantou in Guangdong province.

“When I saw the Hong Guang Mini EV, I thought this could be a good car for me,” she stated. “I’m not just attracted to the car because of its cheap price, it’s really fun to drive.”

Many drivers personalise their Mini EV’s with a brand new paint job and glossy head and rear lights. A couple of are even customising their different vehicles, akin to Audis and BMWs, with Wuling stickers and badges.

Huang went all out, turning the inside of her Mini EV pink and splashing characters from Japanese cartoon sequence Chibi Maruko-chan on the white exterior.


Toyota’s electric SUV would be the first automotive produced by its new zero emissions automobile design division in Japan, referred to as ZEV Factory.

To get the low-cost know-how it wants, nonetheless, it has turned to Chinese battery and automaker BYD via a joint analysis and growth firm they began final 12 months.

The plan is to make use of BYD’s experience in constructing small EVs and some key elements, together with batteries.

But there’s nonetheless a very good probability Toyota will use electric powertrain expertise – a mix of the motor, inverter and gears – referred to as e-Axle made by its affiliate BluE Nexus, in line with one of many individuals acquainted with Toyota’s plans.

The Hong Guang Mini EV additionally performs an vital function for GM and SAIC because it generates green-car credit. Automakers in China must make sufficient New Energy Vehicles (NEV) to earn credit to offset their manufacturing of combustion engine vehicles.

The success of the Mini EV means GM and SAIC have the scope to promote credit to rivals or produce extra, larger, luxurious gasoline autos with out being penalised.

Automotive Foresight’s Zhang additionally stated the green-credit system means the Mini EV might be priced very competitively to the purpose it barely makes a revenue.

SGMW’s Zhou declined to say whether or not the Mini EV makes cash, or how a lot it earns from inexperienced credit.

“We have seen quite a few companies come to us and buy credits from us. But we don’t want to disclose who they are,” he stated.

The two sources acquainted with Toyota’s plans stated it was not planning to lose cash on the retail value of its small EV or leverage inexperienced credit to make it extra aggressive.

An organization spokesman declined to touch upon whether or not Toyota had sufficient Chinese NEV credit, or if it will contemplate promoting them as an integral a part of its technique.

($1 = 108.9200 yen)

($1 = 6.5280 renminbi)

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