Forecasting Bitcoin price using quantitative models, Part 4

This is Part Four of a multipart collection that goals to reply the next query: What is the “fundamental value” of Bitcoin? Part One is about the value of scarcity, Part Two — the market moves in bubbles, Part Three — the rate of adoption, and Part Four — the hash fee and the estimated price of Bitcoin.

Hash fee and the estimated price of Bitcoin

In knowledge mining, the time period “hash rate” is a safety metric. The larger the hashing energy, the larger its security and resistance to exterior assaults. It’s one factor for a hacker to assault your own home laptop, however it’s one other when a hacker tries to assault tens of hundreds of computer systems around the globe on the similar time.

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The hash fee progress is as a result of ever-increasing computing energy of mining servers, which additionally means rising prices to mine Bitcoin (BTC). A easy rule tells us {that a} given exercise should have financial comfort to ensure that it to be sustainable over time. Those who extract oil from the bottom should promote it at a price larger than the price of extraction, those that produce electrical energy should promote it at a price larger than the price of manufacturing, and so forth.

The similar rule applies to Bitcoin mining, whereby the price of electrical energy, the amortization of more and more highly effective servers, and so forth., should be decrease than the revenues generated by receiving Bitcoin for the exercise carried out.

Related: Is Bitcoin a waste of energy? Pros and cons of Bitcoin mining

Therefore, the rising issue of mining Bitcoin should be matched by financial comfort.

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In the primary months of 2010, Bitcoin paid miners about $10,000 monthly. Today, because of the expansion within the price of Bitcoin, the community of miners on this planet are distributed a wealth of over $500 million monthly — and this worth is destined to develop.

The determine is big, even when partially commensurate with the consumption of electrical energy, however it permits us to grasp the era of wealth that this “social experiment” is ready to create. As we will see from the graph, the expansion of the hash fee is increased than the expansion of month-to-month remuneration. Therefore, as a way to estimate the right price of Bitcoin based mostly on hash fee, it’s first essential to grasp the pattern of remuneration for every unit of hash over time.

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As we will see, the greenback remuneration of the hash fee is in sharp decline. This implies that safety will increase nearly exponentially over time, however the price of safety drops significantly over that point.

For a greater understanding, whereas the remuneration for every block grows — regardless of or because of the halving that will increase shortage — the problem of undermining a brand new block will increase way more rapidly, no less than for now. Therefore, the price/hash fee ratio goes down as a result of the denominator goes up extra considerably than the numerator.

So, to estimate the (non-linear) pattern of decline in remuneration for hash fee, the perform that greatest represents this pattern is, as all the time, the facility legislation perform, as proven within the following determine.

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Once we get hold of this perform by multiplying the 2 capabilities of hash fee progress and cost by a single hash fee, it’s doable to acquire the perform that approximates the month-to-month remuneration in U.S. {dollars} over time.

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This end result doesn’t approximate the worth of the price of a single Bitcoin however of the month-to-month remuneration that’s rising over time, as might be seen on the earlier graph.

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To estimate the Bitcoin price, corrected in line with this hash fee metric, it’s essential to divide this worth by the typical variety of Bitcoin that’s mined in a given month. By doing so, we get hold of the standard stepped pattern of the stock-to-flow mannequin described earlier.


We can conclude that even within the face of sturdy volatility and apparently incomprehensible price actions, the principal three components that transfer the price of Bitcoin — the shortage, the demand and the price of manufacturing — might be actually helpful to grasp the dynamics of Bitcoin price actions.

We can argue that there are long-term elementary worth tendencies that may assist to contemplate Bitcoin a “strategic asset class” of funding.

This article was co-authored by Ruggero Bertelli and Daniele Bernardi.

This article doesn’t include funding recommendation or suggestions. Every funding and buying and selling transfer entails threat, and readers ought to conduct their very own analysis when making a call. The views, ideas and opinions expressed listed below are the authors’ alone and don’t essentially mirror or characterize the views and opinions of Cointelegraph.

Ruggero Bertelli is a professor of monetary intermediaries economics on the University of Siena. He teaches banking administration, credit score threat administration and monetary threat administration. Bertelli is a board member of Euregio Minibond, an Italian fund specializing in regional SME bonds, and a board member and vp of the Italian financial institution Prader Bank. He can be an asset administration, threat administration and asset allocation adviser for institutional buyers. As a behavioral finance scholar, Bertelli is concerned in nationwide monetary teaching programs. In December 2020, he revealed La Collina dei Ciliegi, a e book about behavioral finance and the disaster of monetary markets.

Daniele Bernardi is a serial entrepreneur always trying to find innovation. He is the founding father of Diaman, a bunch devoted to the event of worthwhile funding methods that not too long ago efficiently issued the PHI Token, a digital forex with the aim of merging conventional finance with crypto belongings. Bernardi’s work is oriented towards mathematical mannequin growth, which simplifies buyers’ and household workplaces’ decision-making processes for threat discount. Bernardi can be the chairman of buyers’ journal Italia SRL and Diaman Tech SRL, and is the CEO of asset administration agency Diaman Partners. In addition, he’s the supervisor of a crypto hedge fund. He is the creator of The Genesis of Crypto Assets, a e book about crypto belongings. He was acknowledged as an “inventor” by the European Patent Office for his European and Russian patents associated to the cell funds area.

This article has been efficiently submitted to the World Finance Conference.