Derek Chauvin had 40 hours of crisis training where he was taught to defuse situations

Below is a recap of all of the witnesses who’ve testified for the prosecution at Derek Chauvin’s trial as of noon Thursday, so as of look. 

911 dispatcher Jenna Scurry 

The prosecution’s first witness on Monday, March 29, was Jenna Scurry, a 911 dispatcher who watched reside video of police kneeling on Floyd and testified that she known as the officers’ supervisor with considerations about their use of pressure.  

It was Scurry who despatched officers to the Cup Foods at thirty eighth and Chicago Avenue on May 25, 2020, after receiving a name a few man utilizing a counterfeit invoice. 

Scurry informed how she had seen surveillance footage of the incident from one of town’s pole mounted cameras and been struck by a ‘intestine intuition’ that ‘one thing wasn’t proper’. 

The video, which had not beforehand been launched publicly, confirmed Chauvin and fellow officers Lane and Keung perched atop Floyd subsequent to a squad automobile whereas officer Thao regarded on. 

Scurry famous that she wasn’t watching the stream your entire time as a result of she was fielding different calls. But she stated that as she glanced away and again once more, she was struck that the officers hadn’t moved and requested a colleague if the display had frozen. 

‘I first requested if the screens had frozen as a result of it hadn’t modified. I believed one thing is likely to be incorrect,’ she stated. 

‘It was an prolonged interval of time. I am unable to inform you the precise interval they usually hadn’t informed me in the event that they wanted any extra assets however I turned involved that one thing is likely to be incorrect.’ 

She stated that she hadn’t wished to be a ‘snitch’ however she acknowledged what appeared to be use of pressure and acknowledged: ‘I took that intuition and I known as the sergeant.’

Assistant Attorney General Matthew Frank performed audio from the decision, wherein Scurry stated: ‘I do not know in the event that they had to use pressure or not. They received one thing out of the again of the squad and all of them sat on this man. So I do not know in the event that they wanted to or not however they have not stated something to me but.’ 

‘You can name me a snitch if you need to,’ she added.

She stated she made the decision to ‘voice my considerations’ and famous that she had by no means made one prefer it to a police sergeant earlier than.    

Cross inspecting Scurry, Chauvin’s legal professional Eric Nelson was at pains to underscore gaps in what she noticed and the information that she had no police training, little data of what the calls to which she despatched officers truly regarded like and identified that her consideration was not skilled on the display always.

Bystander Alisha Oyler 

Jurors had been proven but extra beforehand unseen video footage on Monday afternoon – this time within the kind of a collection of mobile phone recordings made by Alisha Oyler, a cashier on the Speedway gasoline station reverse Cup Foods who was the state’s second witness. 

‘Trying not to cuss’ and often failing to recall occasions Oyler defined that she had first seen police ‘messing with somebody’ outdoors the Dragon Wok restaurant reverse Cup Foods. 

She stated she had watched officers handcuff Floyd and take him throughout to the now notorious website of squad automobile 320 in entrance of the shop’s entrance and continued to report occasions on her mobile phone as she stepped out to have a cigarette.

She stated she had carried out so as a result of the police had been ‘at all times messing with individuals and it is not proper’.

MMA fighter and bystander Donald Williams

Donald Winn Williams II, a blended martial arts fighter and the prosecution’s third witness who had yelled at Chauvin to verify for a pulse and accused him of inserting Floyd in what he known as a ‘kill choke’, testified first on Monday earlier than persevering with on Tuesday. 

Williams turned emotional as he spoke about how he known as 911 after Floyd was positioned in an ambulance as a result of:  ‘I believed I had simply witnessed a homicide. I felt the necessity to name the police on the police.’

He started to cry as jurors had been performed audio of the decision, wherein he named officer 987 and stated: ‘He simply just about killed this man. He wasn’t resisting arrest. He had his knee on his neck. He wasn’t resisting arrest or nothing, he was handcuffed.’ 

Williams stated he witnessed Chauvin ‘shimmying’, or adjusting his place on Floyd’s neck, in a acknowledged martial artwork maneuver designed to double-down on and tighten a choke maintain.

He informed how he watched Chauvin squeeze the life out of Floyd, who he stated was in ‘great ache’ and ‘pale away like a fish in a bag’ 

He stated that when he known as Chauvin out for utilizing a blood choke the officer regarded him straight within the eye and didn’t cease.  

Williams additionally informed how Officer Tou Thao put his arms on his chest and pushed him again to the curb when he tried to intervene.  

According to Williams the gang that had gathered was not threatening the officers and his calls to verify for a pulse had been echoed by an off responsibility fireplace fighter whose pleas to the officers additionally went unheard. 

At the tip of his 911 name Williams was heard shouting at Thao: ‘Y’all murderers man, y’all murderers.’   

On cross-examination, Chauvin’s legal professional Eric Nelson tried to undercut William’s presentation of himself as a managed {and professional} observer of occasions who remained schooled by his training and expertise in sports activities and safety.

Nelson appeared to be attempting to provoke Williams right into a show of anger as he repeatedly tried to discredit his claims to having remained calm.

‘You began calling [Chauvin] names did not you?’ Nelson requested. ‘You known as him, “a tough guy.” You known as him “such a man,” “bogus.” You known as him a “bum” 13 occasions. You known as him a “bitch.”‘

But whereas Williams agreed to all of these assertions he wouldn’t be persuaded to agree to Nelson’s characterization of him as ‘indignant’ or threatening.

Asked if he had informed Officer Tou Thao that he hoped he would shoot himself he stated: ‘No..I stated you’ll shoot your self in two years as a result of of what you probably did.’ 

Bystander Darnella Frazier, 18 

Darnella Frazier, who was 17 years outdated when she recorded probably the most well-known viral video of Floyd’s arrest final spring, took the stand on Tuesday and informed how she felt helpless as she watched him lose consciousness. 

‘There’s been nights I’ve stayed up apologizing to George Floyd for not doing extra and never bodily interacting, not saving his life,’ Darnella, now 18, stated. 

‘But it is not what I ought to have carried out –  it is what he [Chauvin] ought to have carried out.’

Darnella – who was not proven on digital camera in courtroom as a result of of her age – asserted that Chauvin pressed his knee into Floyd’s neck even more durable because the rising crowd begged him to cease – and that he did not take away his knee even when paramedics had been trying to find a pulse. 

Under questioning by trial legal professional Jerry Blackwell, Darnella stated: ‘I heard George Floyd saying: “I can’t breathe, please get off of me.” He cried for his mother and he was in ache. 

‘It appeared like he knew it was over for him. He was terrified, he was struggling. This was a cry for assist.’ 

When an ambulance lastly arrived, Darnella claimed that paramedics treating Floyd had to inform Chauvin to take away his knee from the unconscious man’s neck.

‘The ambulance individual had to truly inform him to raise up. He checked his pulse first whereas Chauvin’s knee nonetheless remained on Floyd’s neck,’ she stated. ‘The paramedic did a “get up” movement, principally telling him to take away his knee.’  

Darnella stated that she felt ‘threatened’ by each Chauvin and Thao who she stated ‘had been fast to put their arms on their mace’ when a lady who recognized herself as a firefighter requested Chauvin to verify for a pulse and she or he and Darnella made to transfer in direction of Floyd where he lay.

‘Officer Thao and Chauvin, he put his hand on his mace, they put their arms on their mace. I am unable to bear in mind if they really pointed it at us,’ Darnella stated.

Asked if, at any level, Chauvin had ‘received up or let up’ she stated: ‘If something he truly was kneeling more durable. It regarded like he was shoving his knee in his neck.’ 

At the shut of her testimony Darnella broke down as she informed jurors how witnessing and filming Floyd’s dying affected her life.

‘When I have a look at George Floyd I have a look at my dad, I look my brothers, I have a look at my cousins, my uncles as a result of they’re all black,’ she stated. ‘I’ve a black father, black brother, black associates and I have a look at that and I believe how that might have been them.’ 

Bystander Judea, 9 

Nine-year-old witness Judea, took the witness stand on Tuesday and described how she and her cousin Darnella, who testified earlier, had gone to Cup Foods for snacks on May 25, 2020, after they discovered Floyd pinned to the bottom by Chauvin and two different law enforcement officials. 

The lady, who was not proven on digital camera due to her age, gave gut-wrenching testimony about how Chauvin refused to take away his knee from Floyd’s neck even after paramedics arrived and ‘requested him properly to get off of him’. 

‘He [Chauvin] nonetheless stayed on him [Floyd],’ Judea stated. She stated the medics finally ‘simply had to put him off, get him off of him.’

Gently questioned by trial legal professional Jerry Blackwell about how she felt as she noticed these occasions, Judea stated: ‘I was unhappy and sort of mad. If felt like he was stopping his respiration and sort of hurting him.’ 

Judea is pictured second from the right in a green shirt in video from Floyd's fatal confrontation with police that was shown in court

Judea is pictured second from the correct in a inexperienced shirt in video from Floyd’s deadly confrontation with police that was proven in courtroom

Bystander Alyssa, 18

The prosecution’s fourth witness on Tuesday was an 18-year-old named Alyssa, who informed prosecutor Erin Eldridge how she had walked in direction of the incident and began recording on her pal’s mobile phone as a result of she too simply knew that ‘one thing was incorrect’. 

After describing what she noticed of Floyd, Alyssa had to cease and get well her composure earlier than she may proceed with the clearly distressing testimony. ‘It’s troublesome [to talk about] as a result of I felt like there wasn’t something I may do…and I felt like I was failing him, failing to do something,’ she stated by means of tears. 

As with Darnella and her little cousin who testified this morning, Alyssa stated that Chauvin didn’t transfer his knee even on the arrival of paramedics and actually she noticed him put extra weight on Floyd’s neck because the minutes ticked by.

‘He [Chauvin] did not actually take his eyes off him [Floyd] for probably the most half. At one level I noticed him put increasingly weight onto him. I noticed his again foot raise off the bottom and his arms go in his pocket.’

Seeming to echo the motion that an earlier witness, Donald Williams, had described as a ‘shimmy’, she stated: ‘I noticed him transfer his knee down extra, make little actions.’

The prosecution performed the video recorded by Alyssa that day, displaying but once more the horror of the occasion and the small group of onlookers yelling for Floyd’s pulse to be checked and painted by the protection as an indignant mob.

Alyssa might be heard in clear misery shouting: ‘He’s not shifting. Check his pulse. Tell me his pulse proper now. It’s been over a minute [since he moved].’

Recalling that day she stated merely: ‘I knew that point was operating out. He was going to die.’

Finally she stated, there got here some extent when ‘I sort of knew that he was lifeless and never respiration, not combating, not resisting.’

In a quick cross examination Alyssa admitted that she had informed investigating officers that she had seen the opposite officers (Lane or Keung) checking Floyd’s handcuffed wrist for a pulse ‘a number of occasions’. But she added: ‘Afterwards I informed them it regarded like they didn’t discover one.’ 

Bystander Kaylynn, 17 

Alyssa’s pal, 17-year-old Kaylynn, was the final minor to testify on Tuesday. Her recollections aligned with these of earlier witnesses.

She stated that it was the law enforcement officials who had been ‘hostile’ not the gang recalling how Chauvin was ‘digging his knee into George Floyd’s neck’ and ‘grabbed his mace and began shaking it at us’ when onlookers shouted at him to verify for a pulse.

‘I was scared as a result of I didn’t know what was going to occur,’ she stated. Asked straight what she was scared of, she replied: ‘I was scared of Chauvin.’

Chauvin’s legal professional Eric Nelson didn’t cross look at the ultimate teen

Off-duty firefighter Genevieve Hansen

Off-duty Minneapolis firefighter and paramedic Genevieve Hansen, 27, triggered a stir within the courtroom on Tuesday when she was admonished by Judge Cahill for repeatedly interrupting and speaking again to Chauvin’s legal professional Eric Nelson throughout cross examination. 

Hansen had wiped away tears as she recalled how she had recognized herself as a primary responder and begged to assist Floyd when she believed he was dying outdoors the Cup Foods retailer in Minneapolis on May 25, 2020. 

But quickly after her demeanor modified as she was questioned by Nelson, who requested if she would describe bystanders on the scene of Floyd’s arrest as upset or indignant. 

Hansen replied: ‘I do not know in case you’ve seen anyone be killed, but it surely’s upsetting.’ 

At this level Judge Cahill stepped in and cautioned Hansen for being argumentative, telling her to ‘simply reply his questions’. 

Minutes later Cahill despatched the jury out for the day earlier than turning to an more and more combative Hansen and telling her in no unsure phrases: ‘You won’t argue with the courtroom, you’ll not argue with counsel.’    

Under questioning by Assistant Attorney General Matthew Frank on Tuesday, Hansen had defined how her determined pleas to be allowed to present Floyd with life-saving medical help had been ignored by the officers who pinned him down and blocked by officer Thao.

‘I attempted calm and reasoning, I pleaded and was determined. I was determined to assist,’ Hansen stated. 

Her calls fell on deaf ears as Chauvin remained unmoved and Officer Thao informed her to stay on the curb, at one level saying: ‘If you actually are a Minneapolis firefighter you’d know higher than to get entangled.’ 

In courtroom Hansen stated: ‘That’s precisely what I ought to have carried out. There was no medical help on the scene and I may have given [it].’  

‘The officers had been leaning over his physique with what appeared to be the bulk of their weight on him,’ she stated. ‘He wasn’t shifting, he was cuffed and three grown males placing all their weight on anyone – that is an excessive amount of. 

‘Chauvin appeared very comfy with the bulk of his weight balanced on prime of Mr Floyd’s neck. In my reminiscence he had his hand in his pocket. He wasn’t distributing the burden on the automobile, on the pavement.’

Hansen, who’s a professional EMT with state and nationwide licenses, stated that she had assessed that Floyd had a ‘altered degree of consciousness,’ that involved her tremendously.

She stated that his face was ‘smooshed’ into the pavement and stated: ‘I was actually involved. I believed his face regarded puffy and swollen which might occur in case you had been placing a grown man’s weight [on him].

‘I seen some fluid coming from what regarded like George Floyd’s physique and loads of time we see a affected person launch their bladder after they die – that is where my thoughts went. He was restrained however he wasn’t shifting.’

Hansen stated she acknowledged that Floyd was unconscious as a result of he was not responding to the ‘painful stimulae’ of Chauvin’s knee on his neck. 

‘What I wanted to know was whether or not or not he had a pulse anymore,’ she stated. But she stated she was not permitted entry to the scene and the officers ignored her affords to speak them by means of CPR.

She stated she felt ‘helpless.’ ‘There’s a person being killed,’ she stated, ‘and had I had entry I might have [helped]. This human was denied that proper.’

Before she took the stand jury noticed video she had recorded on the scene and heard audio of the 911 name she positioned instantly after.

Her voice trembling with shock and emotion she might be heard telling the operator: ‘I actually simply watched law enforcement officials not take a pulse and never to do something to save a person and I’m a primary responder myself and I actually have it on video.’ 

In an uncomfortable cross-examination, Hansen turned visibly annoyed with Nelson’s line of questioning and refused to be drawn into an admission that she can be distracted from her job if a threatening crowd had been gathered telling her she was ‘doing it incorrect’.

Time after time Nelson tried to get an admission out of her till she stated: ‘I believe a burning construction where there are buildings and houses and folks residing on both facet is far more regarding than 20 individuals.

‘I’ll repeat myself, I do know my job, I’m assured in doing my job and there is nothing anyone can do to disturb me.’ 

As Nelson’s cross examination continued, Hansen turned much less and fewer tolerant of his questioning. When he requested if she had grown indignant, she stated she had been ‘determined’ earlier than admitting: ‘I received fairly indignant after Mr Floyd was loaded into the ambulance and there was no level in attempting to cause with them anymore as a result of they had simply killed anyone.’ 

In stark distinction to the excessive emotion of Tuesday, questions had been temporary and subdued when Hansen returned to the stand on Wednesday morning.

Asked by Nelson if she had offered ID on the scene of George Floyd’s dying, Hansen stated no earlier than confirming to Frank that her evaluation had been that the dying man required, ‘instant medical consideration.’ 

Cup Foods worker Christopher Martin 

Cup Foods clerk Christopher Martin, who was engaged on May 25, 2020, took the stand on Wednesday to testify about how his coworker known as the cops on Floyd as a result of he believed he used a counterfeit $20 invoice. 

Looking again, Martin stated he wished he’d by no means raised alarm in regards to the invoice as a result of he believes Floyd would possibly nonetheless be alive if he hadn’t, telling the courtroom: ‘This may have been averted.’ 

During Martin’s testimony the prosecution performed never-before-seen surveillance video of Floyd inside the shop utilizing the pretend invoice to buy cigarettes.  

Martin informed the courtroom that he turned suspicious of the invoice as a result of it had an uncommon ‘blue pigment so I assumed it was pretend’. 

‘The coverage was in case you took a counterfeit invoice you had to pay for it out of your pay-check,’ Martin defined. ‘I took it in any case and was planning to simply put it on my tab – till I second guessed myself and finally informed my supervisor.’ 

The supervisor then instructed Martin to go outdoors and produce Floyd again, he stated. When Floyd refused, a co-worker known as police. One of the responding officers was Chauvin. 

Questioned by Assistant Attorney General Matthew Frank, Martin stated that the 2 issues he seen about Floyd had been his ‘measurement’ and he appeared to be ‘excessive’. 

However he stated that he didn’t discover Floyd’s demeanor to be threatening, saying: ‘He appeared very pleasant, approachable, talkative, he appeared simply to be having a median Memorial Day residing his life. But he did appear excessive.’  

Martin then narrated a second video displaying him talking with Floyd and his acquaintances in a automobile parked outdoors Cup Foods. He stated he took two journeys out to the car, bringing co-workers with him the second time. 

‘I notified them that they wanted to come again into the shop and the invoice was pretend and my boss wished to speak to them,’ Martin stated.

He recalled Floyd sitting within the driver seat ‘sort of shaking his head, placing his arms on his head. Like: “Why is this happening?” sort of factor.’

Floyd repeatedly refused to come again into the shop, at which level Martin stated his supervisor instructed a co-worker to name the police. 

He stated officers arrived and spoke to the supervisor whereas Martin went again to manning the money register.   

As the shop emptied, Martin turned conscious of a commotion on the entrance of Cup Foods and went outdoors, where he noticed Floyd pinned to the bottom.  

‘I noticed individuals yelling and screaming I noticed Derek [Chauvin] together with his knee on George’s neck on the bottom,’ he stated.

‘George was immobile, limp and Chauvin appeared very…he was in a resting state, that means like he simply rested his knee on his neck.’

Martin, who lived above the shop, stated: ‘I pulled my telephone out first and known as my mother and informed her not to come downstairs. Then I began recording.

‘Later on that night time I deleted it as a result of after they picked George up off the bottom the ambulance went straight down thirty eighth and the quickest approach to get to the hospital is straight down Chicago Avenue.’

Martin stated he assumed from this that Floyd was already lifeless and deleted his recording as he did not need to have to present it to anyone or reply questions on it within the aftermath.

Asked how he had felt as he absorbed what he had simply witnessed, Martin stated ‘disbelief and guilt’.

Martin, who had earlier informed jurors that he had virtually not reported the pretend invoice and solely carried out so after second-guessing himself, stated: ‘If I might have simply not taken the invoice this might have been averted.’

Asked if he nonetheless labored at Cup Foods, Martin’s voice cracked as he stated: ‘No. I did not really feel protected.’

Bystander Christopher Belfrey, 45 

Christopher Belfrey testified on Wednesday about video he recorded when he drove previous Cup Foods and say officers Lane and Keung approaching Floyd in his automobile.   

Belfrey, 45, stated that he began recording when parked straight behind Floyd’s SUV as a result of he was ‘startled’ to see Lane draw his handgun.

He defined that he pulled to the opposite facet of the road, not wanting to ‘get within the center’ of no matter was occurring and continued recording.

The courtroom watched the footage wherein Floyd may be seen, apparently cuffed and compliant, seated towards a wall having been faraway from his car.

According to Belfrey, Lane and Keung then walked Floyd throughout to their squad automobile and put him in it.

Belfrey stated that he had merely gone residence at that time as a result of ‘I believed he was detained. I believed it was over.’

Bystander Charles McMillian, 61 

Charles McMillian, who was the primary individual to confront police about their remedy of Floyd on the day of his deadly arrest, broke down in tears because the prosecution performed footage of cops wrestling with the handcuffed black man.  

McMillian, 61, stated he was driving by the Cup Foods comfort retailer in Minneapolis on May 25, 2020, when he seen officers combating Floyd and pulled over just because he was ‘being nosy’. 

Footage from Lane’s physique digital camera, which was being launched for the primary time by the courtroom however had already obtained by final yr, McMillian was heard calling out as cops grappled with Floyd of their squad automobile. 

McMillian stated he ‘tried to make the state of affairs straightforward,’ by telling Floyd: ‘You cannot win.’  

Floyd might be heard telling McMillian: ‘I’m not attempting to win. Don’t do me like that, I’m claustrophobic.’ 

As he described how Floyd started to cry out for his mom minutes later whereas pinned to the bottom by the officers, McMillian wept as he revealed that he understood how Floyd felt after dropping his personal mother. 

‘I could not assist however really feel helpless. I haven’t got a mama both, however I perceive him. My mother died June twenty fifth,’ the witness stated by means of tears.  

He revealed that he had expertise of being handcuffed himself and as Floyd turned extra agitated, having been apparently calm as he was walked in direction of officers Lane and Keung’s squad automobile, McMillian stated he tried to assist.

The courtroom performed footage of the occasions as McMillian described them. One clip of McMillian on the sidewalk was spliced with physique digital camera footage of Floyd within the squad automobile.  

‘I’m watching, you understand, Mr Floyd,’ McMillian stated. ‘He collapsed onto the again seat and I’m attempting to get him to perceive once you make a mistake, as soon as they get you in cuffs you bought to wait there.

‘Once they get you in cuffs you possibly can’t win.’  

McMillian then described how he continued to strive to assist Floyd after officers Lane, Keung and Chauvin had pinned him to the bottom.  

‘[Floyd] stored saying: “I can’t breathe. Mama they’re killing me, they’re killing me.’ He started saying: “My physique’s shutting down.”‘

McMillian remembered hearing an officer talking about fetching a ‘hog-tie’ but did not recall ever seeing them use such a restraint.

As more of the video was played McMillian’s voice could be heard urging Floyd: ‘Get up and get into the car. Get up and get into the car man.’

Floyd responded: ‘I can’t.’

Later McMillian could be heard telling Chauvin: ‘Your knee on his neck, that’s wrong man.’

Of his own part in the scene, McMillian said: ‘I was trying to help him. He appeared to be in and out [of consciousness], with foam around his mouth. I said: “Man he stated he cannot breathe,” and they said: “Well if he retains speaking he can breathe.”‘

As the state’s questioning came to a close, jurors heard Chauvin speak for the first time.

The officer’s voice was caught on officer Thao’s bodycam as he justified his actions in a brief exchange with McMillian.

When McMillian told Chauvin: ‘I don’t respect what you did,’ the officer replied: ‘Well that’s one person’s opinion. We got to control this guy because he’s a sizeable guy and looks like he’s probably on something.’

In a strange twist McMillian had also told the court how he had met and interacted with Chauvin just five days earlier. He said he had pulled alongside his squad car and said: ‘At the end of the day you go home to your family safe and the next person they go home to their family safe.’

Chauvin’s attorney Eric Nelson did not cross-examine the witness. 

Minneapolis Police Lt Jeff Rugel 

The prosecution called Lt Jeff Rugel, who runs the Minneapolis Police Department’s Business Technology Unit, to the stand on Wednesday afternoon to authenticate officers’ body camera footage and other video evidence from the scene.  

Brief footage from Chauvin’s camera was played, revealing his perspective as he approached Floyd for the first time.

Chauvin was seen with his hands around Floyd’s neck as he and Officer Thomas Lane struggled with to get him into a squad car. 

After a chaotic, blurred portion of footage, Chauvin’s camera fell to the tarmac and there was no more footage from his perspective.

In footage recorded by Lane’s body camera, Chauvin’s camera could be seen lying beneath the squad car.  It’s unclear exactly how the camera came to be on the ground during the confrontation.  

Rugel told the jury how that Minneapolis police policy demands that officers wear their cameras at all times and to activate them during any activity or public interaction. 

The prosecution went onto show the distressing body-camera footage from both Keung and Officer Tou Thao’s body-worn cameras.

Asked if Chauvin also wore a body camera and if, based on his experience and expertise, that was ‘the box on the floor [beneath squad car 320]’, Rugel said: ‘Yes.’

The court then saw previously unseen footage from Chauvin’s body camera as he and Thao sped toward Cup Foods in their squad car.

The footage was paused as Chauvin’s hand reached toward the camera.

Judge Peter Cahill excused the jury for the day after each segment of body camera footage had been viewed and entered into evidence. 

Rugel remained on the stand to answer technical questions from Chauvin’s attorney Eric Nelson regarding the length and editing of the footage, as well as Minneapolis police policy regarding their usage. 

George Floyd’s girlfriend Courteney Ross

Courteney Ross broke down in tears within minutes of taking the stand on Thursday as she described how she and Floyd first met in 2017  at the Salvation Army’s Harbor Light Center, a shelter where he was working as a security guard and she was visiting her son’s father. 

The married mother-of-two said she was touched when Floyd asked to pray with her because she was going through a hard time in her own life – and they kissed in the lobby that same day. 

Ross – who wore a gold necklace with her late boyfriend’s name – began crying even harder when Frank pulled up a photo of Floyd. 

Then she laughed as she called the photo a ‘dad selfie’, before telling how hard it was for Floyd to be so far away from his two daughters, who lived in Texas. 

She described the man who had called out for his mother in his dying moments as ‘a mama’s boy’ who was ‘devastated’ and ‘broken’ by her death in May 2018. 

‘He seemed like a shell of himself like he was broken, he seemed so sad,’ she said. ‘He didn’t have the same kind of bounce that he had.’  

Ross was then asked to tackle head on the issue of drug abuse with which, she admitted, both she and Floyd struggled. 

She said that they were both addicted to opioids having been prescribed them for chronic pain – including oxycodone, which he took in pill form, obtaining it through other people’s prescriptions to make sure the pills were safe. 

‘Both Floyd and I, our story — it’s a classic story of how many people get addicted to opioids. We both suffered from chronic pain. Mine was in my neck and his was in his back. 

‘We both have prescriptions. But after prescriptions that were filled, and we got addicted, and tried really hard to break that addiction many times.’ 

Though he tried to get clean, she said it was something that he struggled with ‘every day’.

In March 2020, she said, she noticed ‘behavioral changes’ that made her suspect that Floyd was using again, or more, and that she too fell into heavier use at that time.  

On cross examination by Chauvin’s attorney Eric Nelson, Ross revealed that that she and Floyd both purchased opioids from Morries Lester Hall, a friend who was in the passenger seat of Floyd’s car on the day he died.  

The friend, Morries Lester Hall, a key witness for the state, filed a shock notice on Wednesday stating that he plans to invoke the Fifth Amendment against self-incrimination, meaning that he will not testify.  

Jurors heard that Hall sold controlled substances to both her and Floyd and that she ‘did not like Morries at all’. 

Ross told the court how, in March 2020, just two months before Floyd’s death, he purchased pills that she did not recognize as the opioids to which both she and Floyd were addicted.

She said the pills, which she believes landed Floyd in the hospital due to an accidental overdose, appeared ‘thick’ and were not uniform, and that when she took them they did not have the same effect as opioids.

‘The pill seemed like it was a really strong stimulant. I couldn’t sleep all night. I felt very jittery,’ Hall said. 

Ross also revealed that Floyd had been hospitalized twice in March – on one occasion due to a drug overdose that saw him hospitalized for five days.

Clearly trying to draw a parallel between the symptoms of which Floyd complained the day he died and the earlier known overdose, Nelson asked if Ross noticed ‘foam coming from his mouth…a dry white substance’, when she took Floyd to hospital in March.

She said ‘yes’ and that he had complained of his stomach hurting and was ‘doubled-over in pain’.

According to Ross, on one occasion when she took pills believed to be bought from Hall she ‘felt like she was going to die.’

Paramedics Seth Bravinder and Derek Smith

Paramedics Seth Bravinder and Derek Smith testified on Thursday as the jury was shown shocking new images of EMTs loading Floyd into an ambulance and attempting to resuscitate him after he was driven from the scene at Cup Foods on May 25, 2020. 

Bravinder and Smith were asked by the prosecution to explain what was happening in graphic video and stills of Floyd being placed on a stretcher and treated in the ambulance. 

Some of the images came from video recorded by witnesses on the scene, while others came from the body camera of officer Thomas Lane, who rode with Floyd to the hospital.   

Asked to describe Floyd’s condition, Smith said: ‘In lay terms, I thought he was dead,’ as the prosecution showed a screengrab of him checking for Floyd’s pulse.  

Video showed Smith gesturing to Chauvin to remove his knee from Floyd’s neck so they could put his limp body on a stretcher. 

In images shown during Smith’s testimony, Floyd was seen slumped, and with his mouth bloodied as Smith said he did not have an obvious physical injury that would explain his dire condition. 

Smith told the court that Floyd’s pupils were ‘large and dilated’.

Earlier the court heard extensive evidence about Floyd’s struggles with opioid addiction. According to the defense Floyd died as a result of an overdose and not of asphyxiation.

Bravinder was asked during his testimony what a medic would expect to see in the eyes of a patient who had suffered an opioid overdose. ‘We look to see if their pupils are really small, constricted, pinpoint,’ he said.

But when Nelson countered, asking what methamphetamine – one of the substances found in Floyd’s blood – does to the pupils, Bravinder said: ‘It dilates them.’

Smith told the court that he detected a flicker of electrical activity in Floyd’s heart as they sped to the Hennepin County Medical Center and administered a shock in hopes of restarting a pulse. But, he said, Floyd remained ‘in his dead state’.  

Images shown during Bravinder’s testimony showed Smith cutting Floyd’s shirt and preparing to put in an IV line as he began attempts to resuscitate him on the way to Hennepin County Medical Center.  

Both Bravinder and Smith testified that they wanted to get Floyd into the ambulance quickly because he was in cardiac arrest.  

Bravinder added: ‘On top of that there was also a crowd of people who were yelling and in my mind we had to get away from that because running a cardiac arrest takes lot of mental power, can be taxing and we want to do that in the optimum environment …to be in a controlled space.’

Bravinder said he stopped the ambulance en route to the hospital and went into the back to assist his partner when Floyd’s cardiac monitor was showing ‘asystole’ – the medical term for ‘flat-lined’.  

‘It’s not a good sign,’ Bravinder said. ‘Basically just because your heart isn’t doing anything at that moment. There’s not — it’s not pumping blood. So it’s not — it’s not a good sign for a good outcome.’

Floyd was shown strapped into a Lucas device – a mechanical method of delivering chest compressions – after he had flat-lined as medics desperately tried to restore a heartbeat and ventilate him by placing an airway device in his mouth. 

According to Bravinder, despite all efforts which included drilling a drip into bone in Floyd’s leg – a common technique in cardiac arrest when medics struggle to get Intra Vascular (IV) access – Floyd never regained a pulse during his treatment of him.

As Smith also recalled, Bravinder said at one point Floyd showed ‘pulseless electrical activity’ when his heart monitor picked up flickers of electrical rhythms but these were never strong enough to establish a pulse.

When prosecutor Erin Eldridge asked if it was important to start resuscitation efforts as soon as a pulse was lost, Bravinder said: ‘Yes, as soon as possible.’ 

‘The longer a patient goes without receiving resuscitation the less likely it is that resuscitation will be successful.’ 

Cross-examined by Nelson, Bravinder confirmed that he had personally been called out to emergencies involving drug overdoses and that police were called to such cases as a matter of course.

Nelson asked: ‘Is that because sometimes when people are treated for an overdose and they come round they become aggressive and violent?’

Bravinder responded: ‘Yes.’

On re-direct, Eldridge asked Bravinder: ‘Did you see someone who appeared to be unresponsive?’

He replied: ‘From what I could tell just standing from a distance, yes.’  

Asked about Floyd’s state in the ambulance, Bravinder said: ‘I guess limp would be the best description. He wasn’t — he was unresponsive and wasn’t holding his head up or anything like that.’   

Minneapolis Fire Department Captain Jeremy Norton 

Minneapolis Fire Department Captain Jeremy Norton testified on Thursday afternoon about the initial confusion that saw their fire rig arrive at Cup Foods to assist paramedics only to find that the ambulance had pulled off the scene and was treating Floyd a few blocks away.

He explained that they had received very little information beyond receiving a call out to Cup Foods which was elevated from code 2 (non-emergent), to code 3, (lights and sirens en route).

According to Norton the only information he had was that the patient had sustained ‘a mouth injury’.

On arrival at the store Norton found ‘people upset’ and searched for a patient.

Norton said: ‘I was looking for a patient. The call was confusing because I didn’t have a lot of information so was essentially looking on the floor for someone.’

The fire rig ultimately joined the ambulance crew at 36th and Park Avenue, two blocks away.

By the time he saw Floyd he was, he said: ‘Face up on the stretcher. He had an advance airway in an he had the Lucas compression device in place and working.’

Norton cleared Lane out of the ambulance and took over attempts to resuscitate Floyd who was, he said, ‘to all intents and purposes dead’.

Norton revealed that after seeing Floyd’s condition he had two of his colleagues return to the scene to check on Genevieve Hansen, the off-duty fire fighter outside Cup Foods who testified earlier that she had begged to intervene.

Norton explained that he had seen Hansen at the store and registered that she was ‘agitated to distraught’, but had been looking for a patient and had not spoken with her.

‘I had no understanding of the cause of her distress,’ Norton said. ‘Once I got in the ambulance and saw the severity of Mr Floyd’s condition I was able to put together what she had been talking about and I understood the justification of her duress and sent my firefighters back to check on her and make sure she was okay.’ 

Minneapolis Police Department Sergeant David Pleoger

David Pleoger, who recently retired as a sergeant with the Minneapolis Police Department and was Chauvin’s supervisor on May 25, 2020, testified on Thursday afternoon. 

The jury heard new audio of Chauvin speaking with Pleoger moments after Floyd’s death, saying: ‘I was just going to call you come out to our scene we had to hold a guy down he was going crazy, wouldn’t go in the back of the squad.’

Pleoger said that Chauvin did not tell him that he had applied his knee to Floyd’s neck or that he had held him down for any length of time.

‘I believe he told me he’d become combative he mentioned he’d injured either his nose of his mouth and eventually having struggled with him,’ Pleoger recalled.

‘He said he’d suffered a medical emergency and an ambulance was called.’ 

 As supervising shift sergeant, Pleoger was tasked with investigating any use of force incidents that occurred during his shift – 3pm to 1am.

He arrived on the scene after being called by 911 dispatcher Jena Scurry on May 25, 2020 on seeing the incident with Floyd unfold outside Cup Foods called because she had a ‘gut feeling’ that what she was seeing ‘wasn’t right’.

Pleoger recalled: ‘She called to say she didn’t want to be a snitch but she had seen something while viewing a camera that she thought was concerning.’

Pleoger had not received a call from Chauvin at that time and initially told Scurry that what she saw ‘might not count’.

The jury was shown footage from Pleoger’s body camera in which officers Chauvin, Tou Thao, J Alexander Keung and Thomas Lane could be standing near the site of where they took down Floyd. 

Pleoger instructed Chauvin to identify and speak with witnesses, to which the officer replied: ‘We can try but they’re pretty hostile.’

Additional video showed Pleoger arriving at the hospital where Floyd was pronounced dead, in which Chauvin appeared to be wringing his hands.    

Earlier in his testimony Schleicher had questioned Pleoger about Minneapolis Police Department policy regarding use of force and asked if he was aware of positional asphyxia.

He said he had been for ‘a lot of years’. Asked to explain what it was, Pleoger said: ‘If you leave someone on their chest for too long their breathing can become compromised so you want to get them off their chest.’

This was a risk, Schleicher established, whether somebody was applying pressure to a person or not.

Schleicher also took Pleoger through sections of the police policy document including instructions regarding use of the ‘hobble’ or Maximum Restraint Technique – a device that cuffs a suspects hands and feet together and for which Chauvin called for but did not use on Floyd.

According to police policy if the hobble is used, ‘the person shall be placed in the side recovery position’, and not be kept face down, in the prone position.

Officers are also required ‘as soon as reasonably practical [to] determine if anyone was injured and render medical aid consistent with training and request Emergency Medical Services (EMS) if necessary’.

Pleoger’s testimony was interrupted as Chauvin’s attorney Eric Nelson objected when Schleicher sought to draw Pleoger’s opinion on whether Chauvin’s use of force had been excessive.

Judge Cahill asked the jury to leave the room while Nelson and Schleicher sought to argue his ability to give that opinion.

Questioned by Nelson, Pleoger told the court that he did not investigate the incident in depth and conduct a force review once it became ‘critical’ with Floyd’s death. He did not interview the officers in depth or speak with any of the witnesses.

In the end Cahill allowed Schleicher to ask just one question of Pleoger: Did he have an opinion as to when the use of force in this incident should have ended? 

Pleoger responded: ‘Yes [it should have ended] when Mr Floyd was no longer offering up any resistance.’  

Minneapolis Police Department Sergeant Jon Edwards

Sgt. Jon Edwards, who was called to secure the scene in the aftermath, testified that two of the officers concerned had been nonetheless on the website when he arrived and that he was ordered to take away the crime scene tape just hours after his death was confirmed. 

Edwards, who was the supervising officer who took control of the scene outside the convenience store where Chauvin knelt on Floyd’s neck, told jurors that he was asked to go to the scene as the black man lay dead, or dying, in Hennepin County Medical Center.

He testified that he was asked to secure the scene by Sergeant David Pleoger, who had been the previous shift supervisor and had gone to the hospital with Chauvin. 

Edwards said he encountered Thomas Lane and J Alexander Keung, who have both been charged in Floyd’s death, at the scene when he arrived and he instructed them to turn on their body cameras.  

As images of the now eerily empty streets outside Cup Foods were screened in court, Edwards told the jury he instructed Lane and Keung to ‘chill out’ while others canvased the area, searching for and speaking to witnesses. 

Edwards said: ‘I asked them to chill out because I knew from Sergeant Pleoger that he had a couple of escort sergeants coming down to transport them to interview room 100.’ 

Jurors were shown images from Edwards’ bodyworn camera footage that showed Lane and Keung sitting in their squad car into which officers had tried to wrangle Floyd some two hours earlier. 

Edwards told jurors that at approximately 10.13pm news came through that Floyd had died and the situation was confirmed as a critical incident. By then homicide was on the scene and Lane and Keung were transported to City Hall to be interviewed.

The BCA took over the scene, securing Floyd’s vehicle and Lane and Keung’s squad car which, amid all the earlier commotion, was still running.

The court was shown pictures of BCA towing away the squad car – in which white powder and a half-chewed ‘speed-ball’ pill a mixture of methamphetamine and fentanyl bearing Floyd’s DNA and saliva were found.

Edwards testified that he was then ordered to remove the crime scene tape he had earlier put up at about 3.30am. 

Minneapolis Police Department Lieutenant Richard Zimmerman 

Richard Zimmerman, the head of the Minneapolis Police Department’s homicide division, told jurors that Derek Chauvin’s use of force in arresting George Floyd was ‘totally unnecessary’ because a handcuffed person doesn’t pose a threat and kneeling on someone’s neck can ‘kill them’.

Zimmerman, who responded to the crime scene after Floyd’s deadly arrest, testified that he had watched multiple videos showing the moment the officer knelt on the black man’s neck after handcuffing him. 

Having watched the videos, Zimmerman was clear: ‘Pulling him down to the ground face down and putting your knee on his neck for that amount of time is just uncalled for.’ 

He added that once Floyd was handcuffed, he saw ‘no reason why the officers felt they were in danger and that’s what they would have to feel to use that level of force.’ 

Zimmerman told jurors that kneeling on the neck of someone who is handcuffed and in the prone position is ‘top-tier, deadly’ force and should not be used. 

‘If your knee is on a person’s neck, that can kill him,’ he said. 

Asked by prosecutors whether a handcuffed person was a reduced threat, Zimmerman said: ‘Once a person is cuffed, the threat level goes down all the way. They are cuffed, how can they really hurt you. 

‘You getting injured is way down. You could have some guy try to kick you or something, but you can move out of the way. That person is handcuffed, you know, so the threat level is just not there.’ 

Zimmerman, who is trained every year in the use of force, told jurors he had never been trained to ‘kneel on the neck of somebody who’s cuffed and in the prone position’.  

‘Once you secure or handcuff a person you need to get them out of the prone position as soon as possible because it restricts their breathing,’ he said, adding that having your hands cuffed behind your back ‘stretches the muscles back through your chest and makes it more difficult to breathe’. 

Zimmerman, who joined the Minneapolis Police Department in 1985 and is now its most senior officer, said he arrived at the scene of Floyd’s arrest just before 10pm – about 30 minutes after Floyd had been declared dead at a downtown hospital.

He said he helped ensure that evidence was properly secured and any witnesses were found. 

Dr. Bradford Langenfeld 

Dr. Bradford Langenfeld, the medic at the Hennepin County Medical Center who pronounced Floyd dead, told jurors that he believed the cause of death last May 25 was asphyxia.

Dr Langenfeld told the court, ‘Any amount of time that a patient spends in cardiac arrest without CPR markedly decreases the chances of survival’ before explaining that those chances dropped by 10 to 15 percent with each passing minute.

There was nothing in the paramedics’ reports, he said, to suggest that they were concerned that Floyd had either suffered a heart attack or drug overdose.  

The court also heard from Dr. Bradford Langenfeld Monday, pictured, the medic at the Hennepin County Medical Center who pronounced Floyd dead

The court also heard from Dr. Bradford Langenfeld Monday, pictured, the medic at the Hennepin County Medical Center who pronounced Floyd dead

Dr Langenfeld also told how paramedics had fought to revive Floyd for 30 minutes by the time he arrived in his ward but that despite their efforts he was in cardiac arrest and save for occasional Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA) – activity in the heart not strong enough to establish a pulse – he flat-lined.

The medic could not recall whether or not Floyd was still cuffed on arrival but he did remember seeing indentations from the handcuffs on his wrists.  

As his direct testimony came to an end Dr Langenfeld told the court that he had considered a host of possible causes for Floyd’s cardiac arrest and concluded that hypoxia – oxygen deficiency or asphyxia– was most likely, he said ‘based on the information that I had.’

Dr Langenfeld announced Floyd dead after 30 minutes in the hospital, by which time he had been without a pulse for close to an hour.

Speaking softly and soberly he recalled, ‘In the absence of any apparent reversable cause, [I felt that] the likelihood of any meaningful outcome was far below 1 percent and we would not be able to resuscitate Mr Floyd, so I then pronounced him dead.’ 

Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo 

Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo told jurors that Derek Chauvin ‘absolutely did not’ follow police policy on de-escalation or use of force when he pressed his knee into George Floyd’s neck for 9 minutes and 29 seconds.

In explosive testimony Arradondo told the court that former officer Chauvin’s use of force ‘absolutely’ violated the department’s policy and belief in ‘the sanctity of life.’ And that the pressure that he used was contrary to all departmental teachings.

He said: ‘Once Mr Floyd had stopped resisting and certainly once he was in distress and trying to verbalize that, that should have stopped.

‘Once there was no longer any resistance and clearly when Mr Floyd was no longer responsive and even motionless to continue to apply that level of force to a person proned out, handcuffed behind their back that in no way shape or form is by policy, part of our training, certainly not part of our ethics or values.’

Police Chief Medaria Arradondo fired Chauvin and three other officers the day after Mr Floyd's death on May 25 last year. He said at the time: 'Mr. George Floyd's tragic death was not due to a lack of training - the training was there. Chauvin knew what he was doing'

Police Chief Medaria Arradondo fired Chauvin and three other officers the day after Mr Floyd’s death on May 25 last year. He said at the time: ‘Mr. George Floyd’s tragic death was not due to a lack of training – the training was there. Chauvin knew what he was doing’

Shown a still image taken from the bystander video Arradondo said: ‘When I look at the facial expression of Mr Floyd that does not appear in any way shape or form that that is ight to moderate pressure [as per policy].

‘That action is not de-escalation and when we talk about the framework of our sanctity of life and principals and values that we have that action goes contrary.’ 

Arradondo, Minneapolis’s first black police chief, also told the court that he agreed the Chauvin had violated policy by failing to provide any medical aid to the clearly suffering Floyd. He fired Chauvin and three other officers the day after Mr Floyd’s death on May 25 last year and in June called it ‘murder’. 

In opening statements Jerry Blackwell had promised the court that Arradondo would ‘not mince his words.’ After a slow start to his testimony in which the state combed through police policy and training Arradondo made good that promise.

As well as his clear condemnation of the actions that, he described as violating policy, Arradondo told the court that George Floyd’s alleged crime – passing a fake $20 bill at Cup Foods store – did not rise to the level of violent crime that demanded use of force or a custodial arrest. 

Inspector Katie Blackwell

Inspector Katie Blackwell was commander of the Minneapolis police department’s training division.  

Blackwell, former Commander of Training Division, is the only witness to testify so far with significant knowledge of Chauvin. 

She said that she has known Chauvin for close to twenty years having first served as a community officer with him. And she herself appointed Chauvin, who was by far the most senior officer on the scene May 25, to the role of Field Training Officer, responsible for training and mentoring new recruits.

But when shown an image of Chauvin, with his knee on Floyd’s neck, Blackwall was damning. She said, ‘I don’t know what kind of improvised position that is.’

MPD Inspector Katie Blackwell also gave evidence Monday. She told jurors about the training officers recieve

MPD Inspector Katie Blackwell also gave evidence Monday. She told jurors about the training officers recieve

According to Blackwell officers are taught to use one or two arms, not knees, for neck restraints and to constantly reassess the situation.

She also said that ‘positional asphyxia’ was a concept known to her for as long as she had been an officer – roughly the same period of time that Chuavin has served.

She echoed testimony already heard by the jury regarding the dangers of keeping a person in the prone position – one in which they are not able to adequately breath.

For that reason, she said, officers are taught to put suspects on their side, in the side-reccovery position or sitting upright ‘as soon as is possible.’

With her questioning the state submitted Chauvin’s training records as Schleicher established the consistent and recent training – including courses in crisis intervention, de-escalation and first aid – received by Chauvin in both his capacity as a patrol officer and a field training officer.

Ker Wang, Crisis Training Co-ordinator 

As the jury were brought in for the seventh day of trial the court heard from Sergeant Ker Wang, 49, Crisis Training Co-ordinator with the City of Minneapolis Police Department and the man who wrote significant portions of that training.

He said that he recognized Chauvin’s name, not because he knew him personally, but from training.

The court heard that Chauvin took part in a 40-hour crisis training course in 2018 – though this was not a course in which Wang had personally instructed him.

Wang described a ‘crisis’ as anything that took an individual ‘beyond their coping mechanisms’ and said that the primary goal of any intervention was to ‘de-escalate’ and restore the situation to a pre-crisis level.

Steve Schleicher asked Wang to talk the jury through the Critical Decision Making Model – a notion with which they are now well familiar and a frequent point of reference in both the prosecution and defense’s line of questioning.

As the jury were brought in for the seventh day of trial the court heard from Sergeant Ker Wang, 49, Crisis Training Co-ordinator with the City of Minneapolis Police Department and the man who wrote significant portions of that training

As the jury were brought in for the seventh day of trial the court heard from Sergeant Ker Wang, 49, Crisis Training Co-ordinator with the City of Minneapolis Police Department and the man who wrote significant portions of that training 

The model, set down as a graphic of five spheres around a central sphere, was displayed to the jury.

Wang who introduced the model to MPD training in 2018 explained how the outer spheres which contained the topic headings: Information Gathering, Threat/Risk Assessment, Authority to Act, Goals and Actions, Review & Re-Assess linked to the ‘key pillars of procedural justice’ expressed in the centre ‘Voice Neutrality Respect Trust.’

The model could be read and enacted in any direction, as officers respond to crisis in a state of flux and constant reassessment.

He said that every officer could apply this model, ‘like memory’ and in doing so ‘can slow down time,’ in a crisis situation.

He said, ‘I believe in this model because it works.’

When Eric Nelson cross-examined the witness he once again stepped up with the clear aim of widening the focus from Chauvin’s assessment of and actions towards Floyd to take in the context of the crowd – the part that they played in events and the extent to which their understanding of them was limited.

He pointed out that an officer had to consider ‘the totality of the circumstances,’ which ‘is more than just how you react to the person being arrested.’

Wang agreed with Nelson’s statement that this included, ‘citizen bystanders, what to do when a citizen bystander starts filming you, how to identify when a citizen constitutes a risk.’

The model was, Nelson asserted, ‘a very dynamic, ever-changing thing based on the information that comes to the officers in real time.’

Much of that may be invisible to the onlookers, he said – such as tactical thinking, knowing that medical help is on the way, considering officer safety.

In stark contrast with much of the testimony heard by the court so far in which Chauvin has been described as ‘blank’ ‘hateful’ and apparently oblivious to the crowd and man beneath his knee, Nelson steered the witness towards a presentation of Chauvin’s conduct and appearance as textbook.

Referencing training he said, ‘An officer should appear confident, they should be able to try to stay calm, they should try speak slowly and softly, they should avoid staring or eye-contact…’ Wang agreed.

They should, he said, in all respects attempt to ‘create time and distance.,’ acting only when it was ‘safe and feasible’ to do so. 

Lieutenant Johnny Mercil 

Minneapolis Police Department’s use of force expert and the man in charge of officer training has told jurors that Derek Chauvin’s knee on George Floyd’s neck is not, and never has been, an MPD trained neck restraint.

Asked by prosecutor Steve Schleicher if such a level of restraint would be authorized when a subject is handcuffed Lieutenant Johnny Mercil replied, ‘I would say no.’ 

Mercil laso told the court that officers were taught to use the minimum amount of force needed to detain someone. 

Asked about leg neck restraints Mercil explained that, while not taught to officers, they were something that might be shown to young cadets. But they would not look like the restraint carried out by Chauvin on May 25.  

Minneapolis Police Lt. Johnny Mercil, pictured,  told the court officers were taught to use the minimum amount of force needed to detain someone

Minneapolis Police Lt. Johnny Mercil, right, also told the court officers were taught to use the minimum amount of force needed to detain someone

As Schleicher walked him through the training and concepts in MPD’s Use of Force Mercil told the court that officers are not taught to use leg neck restraints and never have been.

Mercil was responding to a picture of Chauvin with his knee pressed into Floyd’s neck shown to him in court.

According to Mercil officers are taught how to deliver conscious and unconscious neck restraints with their arms and only under very limited circumstances when the level of resistance and threat would make such a measure proportional. 

Nicole MacKenzie, Minneapolis police medical support co-ordinator

 Nicole MacKenzie, Minneapolis police medical support co-ordinator, told Derek Chauvin’s trial that it is ‘very difficult to focus on a patient if you don’t feel safe’, arguing a noisy crowd could have made it hard for officers to hear George Floyd struggling to breathe.

She told jurors that treating a person under the eyes of a noisy crowd was ‘incredibly difficult.’ 

MacKenzie said: ‘It might sound wrong but bystanders do sometimes attack EMS crews so sometimes just getting out of the situation is the best way to diffuse it.’ 

‘It’s incredibly difficult [to treat under those circumstances] because you’re trying to be heads down on a patient [but] it’s very difficult to focus on the patient if you don’t feel safe around you.’

MacKenzie was responding to defense attorney Eric Nelson as he cross-examined her following initial questioning by prosecutor Steve Schleicher. 

Bystander video of Floyd crying that he couldn’t breathe as onlookers yelled at Chauvin to get off him sparked protests around the U.S. that descended into violence in some cases.  

MacKenzie also said Floyd could have displayed ‘super-human strength’ due do ‘Excited Delirium’ brought on by the consumption of the illict drug speedball.

Explaining this potential side-effect of taking the illicit drug MacKenzie said, ‘The person might be experiencing elevated body temperature, the heart rate might be extremely elevated and insensitive to pain. Because you don’t really have that pain/compliance edge that would normally control somebody’s behavior.

‘Somebody experiencing this might have what we would call super-human strength, lifting things they wouldn’t normally be albe to lift, breaking things.’

One of other officers at the scene, Thomas Lane. said he was ‘worried about excited delirium’ and suggesting rolling Floyd on his side.  

The court also heard from officer Nicole Mackenzie, the police medical response coordinator, who confirmed Chauvin was trained in CPR. She added: 'There is the possibility that somebody could be in respiratory distress and still being able to verbalize it. Just because they're speaking doesn't mean they're breathing adequately'

The court also heard from officer Nicole Mackenzie, the police medical response coordinator, who confirmed Chauvin was trained in CPR. She added: ‘There is the possibility that somebody could be in respiratory distress and still being able to verbalize it. Just because they’re speaking doesn’t mean they’re breathing adequately’

Earlier Schleicher had established that Chauvin had undergone training in CPR and AED as well as other first aid required by the force including the administration of NARCAN – the chemical antedote to opioid overdose.

The jury were shown two American Heart Foundation cards bearing the defendant’s name, proving that he was qualified in both CPR and AED.  

Having made clear that, in common with all officers, Chauvin was qualified to give CPR MacKenzie went on to tell the jury that once trained officers are must provide medical aid when necessary.

It was not enough, she said, for an officer to simply call for an ambulance and wait when in a ‘critical situation.’

She talked the jury through the basic steps in which officers are trained to establish responsiveness and – if no response is forthcoming – to check for breathing and a pulse before commencing chest compressions.

Asked if it was true to say that if a person can talk they can breathe, MacKenzie said, ‘No sir, somebody can be in respiratory distress and still be able to verbalize it.’

But under cross-examination MacKenzie agreed that the policies on rendering emergency medical aid were ‘somewhat qualified or contingent on what was going on at the scene at the time.’

Put simply the scene had to safe, she accepted, before an officer should turn their attentions to first aid or CPR.

Nelson focused again on the scene. Painting the picture of a busy road and volatile, vocal crowd he asked if it would be possible for an officer to confuse the gasps of ‘agonal’ ineffective ‘breathing’ with effective breathing and if this mistake would be more likely, ‘when there’s a lot of noise and commotion.’

MacKenzie agreed to both points.

The defense expressed their desire to recall MacKenzie as their witness when making their case next week. 

Jody Stiger, use of force expert  

Derek Chauvin’s use of force was ‘excessive.’ This was the opinion given by Jody Stiger, 50, who gave testimony as the state’s Use of Force expert, Tuesday afternoon.

Introducing Stiger to the court Schleicher established the LAPD sergeant’s qualifications as an expert talking him through an illustrious 28 years of service.

Stiger told the court that he has served in some of the most dangerous places and some of the most dangerous beats – Skid Row, gangs, narcotics – both in uniform and undercover and on LAPD’s Use of Force Board, as a peer reviewing high profile uses of force.

Stiger was also a tactics instructor of six years and has travelled nationally in his capacity as an aid to the Inspector General – an independent oversight entity in LAPD – consulting with police forces across the country to establish consistent standards and training nationwide.

He has conducted 2500 use of force reviews including use of deadly force.

Jody Stiger, 50, who gave testimony as the state’s Use of Force expert, said Chauvin’s use of force was ‘excessive'

Jody Stiger, 50, who gave testimony as the state’s Use of Force expert, said Chauvin’s use of force was ‘excessive’

Stiger told the jury that he had reviewed all of the state’s materials– body-worn cameras, cell and pole-camera video footage, reports and MPD manuals and training materials.

He told the court that he also took into consideration legal standards, the level of the offense and the person’s actions.

Asked about Floyd’s crime – attempting to pass a fake $20 bill – he said, ‘Typically you wouldn’t even expect to use any force.’

Addressing the incident on May 25, Stiger said that initially officers had been justified in their use of force.

He defined, ‘Initially he was actively resisting the officers, at that stage the officers were justified in using force to have him comply with their demands.

‘However, once he was placed in the prone position on the ground he slowly ceased his resistance and at that point the ex-officers should have slowed down or backed off their force as well.’

Instead, he noted, ‘They continued the force that they were utilizing from the time when they put him on the ground.’

Stiger told the court that the officers could have continued trying to talk to Floyd and noted that Keung had already established some sort of rapport.

But despite this he said that they had not behaved unreasonably in their efforts to get a struggling Floyd into the back of the squad car.

He recalled, ‘Mr Floyd was actively resisting moving around clearly, trying to get out. He didn’t want to be there and the officers were initially trying to place him in the back seat, grabbing the seat belt and things of that nature and eventually the decision was made to remove him from the vehicle.’

He stated, ‘They were pulling him from the driver side, passenger door – the street side – pulling on his legs and his arms and once they got him out he kind of went on his knees

‘He was saying he couldn’t breathe, saying he was claustrophobic.Numerous occasions he acknowledged he was afraid, he had had covid and couldn’t breathe and he had nervousness and was claustrophobic.’

As jurors were shown body camera footage from the scene they absorbed Stiger’s opinions. The first thing Floyd said when he was taken out of the squad car was, Stiger said, ‘Thank you.’

Save for one kick because the officers tried to put him within the inclined place Stiger stated he didn’t observe Floyd committing any acts of aggression or resistance. 


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