Health

Coronavirus Variant Tracker – The New York Times



Each coronavirus accommodates practically 30,000 letters of RNA. This genetic information permits the virus to contaminate cells and hijack them to make new viruses.






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Diagram of the


CORONAVIRUS

GENOME

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Diagram of the

CORONAVIRUS

GENOME



As an contaminated cell builds new coronaviruses, it sometimes makes tiny copying errors known as mutations. Scientists can monitor mutations as they’re handed down by means of a lineage, which is a department of the viral household tree.

A gaggle of coronaviruses that share the identical inherited set of distinctive mutations known as a variant. If sufficient mutations accumulate in a lineage, the viruses might evolve clear-reduce variations in how they operate. These lineages come to be referred to as strains. Covid-19 is brought on by a coronavirus pressure referred to as SARS-CoV-2.

Over the course of the pandemic, a variety of variants of SARS-CoV-2 have arisen. Some of them are elevating worries that they might draw out the pandemic or make vaccines much less efficient.

News and updates
Feb. 7 South Africa stops utilizing AstraZeneca’s vaccine in opposition to the B.1.351 variant.
Feb. 7 The B.1.1.7 variant is doubling each 10 days within the United States.

Variants of concern

Lineage Variant title Status
B.1.1.7 Variant of Concern 202012/01, or 501Y.V1 Emerged in Britain in December and is roughly 50 % extra infectious. Now detected in over 70 international locations and 33 states.
B.1.351 501Y.V2 Emerged in South Africa in December. Reduces the effectiveness of some vaccines.
P.1 501Y.V3 Emerged in Brazil in late 2020. Has mutations much like B.1.351.

Mutations that will assist the coronavirus unfold

Lineage Mutation Status
B.1 D614G Appeared in early 2020 and unfold around the globe.
Several N501Y A defining mutation in a number of lineages, together with B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1. Helps the virus bind extra tightly to human cells.
Several E484K Appears in a number of lineages. May assist the virus keep away from some sorts of antibodies.
Several L452R Increasingly widespread in California, however not but proven to be extra infectious.

Other variants within the information


Lineage Variant title Status
B.1.427, B.1.429 CAL.20C Carries the L452R mutation. Common in California, however not but proven to be extra infectious.

Variants of Concern

Coronaviruses that look like extra infectious than different circulating coronaviruses.

The B.1.1.7 Lineage

This group of coronaviruses got here to gentle in Britain, the place it was named Variant of Concern 202012/01. The variant is often known as 20I/501Y.V1, or just known as B.1.1.7.

Coronaviruses from the B.1.1.7 lineage are considered roughly 50 percent more infectious. After its discovery in December, it rapidly emerged in different international locations and surged at an exponential price. It is doubling within the United States every ten days. Preliminary proof means that B.1.1.7 is about 35 % extra lethal than different variants. On the opposite hand, vaccines appear to work well against it.

B.1.1.7 seems to be extra infectious because of several mutations in its spike protein, which the coronavirus makes use of to connect to cells.






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Mutations within the

B.1.1.7

LINEAGE

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Mutations within the

B.1.1.7

LINEAGE

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Mutations within the

B.1.1.7

LINEAGE


KEY MUTATIONS IN B.1.1.7

Mutations within the spike protein embody:

N501Y, which helps the virus latch on extra tightly to human cells. But the mutation shouldn’t be probably to assist the virus evade present vaccines.

P681H, which can assist contaminated cells create new spike proteins extra effectively.

— The H69–V70 and Y144/145 deletions, which alter the form of the spike and will assist it evade some antibodies.





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Key mutations in

the B.1.1.7 spike

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Key mutations in

the B.1.1.7 spike


It takes three spike proteins to kind one spike, so every mutation seems in three locations:






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Key mutations in

the B.1.1.7 spike

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Key mutations in

the B.1.1.7 spike

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For extra on the B.1.1.7 mutations, see: Inside the B.1.1.7 Coronavirus Variant.

WHERE B.1.1.7 HAS BEEN FOUND

The variant was first detected within the United Kingdom in December, and a glance again at earlier samples discovered it as early as Sept. 20.





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B.1.1.7 detected,

usually in a traveler

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map B117 countries 600

map B117 countries 335


B.1.1.7 has now been detected in over 70 countries. It was first reported within the United States in January, and has now reached at the least 33 states.


Last month, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warned that B.1.1.7 may develop into the predominant source of all infections within the United States by March.

RECENT COVERAGE OF B.1.1.7

The B.1.351 Lineage

A variant referred to as 20H/501Y.V2, from the B.1.351 lineage of coronaviruses, was first recognized in South Africa in December.

Scientists are involved in regards to the variant as a result of scientific trials of vaccines are displaying that they provide less protection in opposition to B.1.351 than different variants. People who get better from different variants might not be capable to fend off B.1.351 as a result of their antibodies gained’t seize the viruses tightly. The F.D.A. is preparing a plan for updating vaccines if the variant surges within the United States.






variant B1351 900

Mutations within the

B.1.351

LINEAGE

variant B1351 600

Mutations within the

B.1.351

LINEAGE

variant B1351 335

Mutations within the

B.1.351

LINEAGE


KEY MUTATIONS IN B.1.351

Mutations close to the tip of the spike protein embody:

N501Y, which helps the virus latch on extra tightly to human cells. This mutation additionally seems within the B.1.1.7 and P.1 lineages.

K417N, which additionally helps the virus bind extra tightly to human cells.

E484K, which can assist the virus evade some sorts of antibodies.





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Key mutations in

the B.1.351 spike

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Key mutations in

the B.1.351 spike

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WHERE B.1.351 HAS BEEN FOUND

The variant unfold from South Africa into neighboring international locations, and was detected within the United States in January. It has since unfold to at the least 24 international locations.





map B1351 countries 900

B.1.351 detected,

usually in a traveler

map B1351 countries 720

map B1351 countries 600

map B1351 countries 335


It has been detected in three states: Maryland, South Carolina and Virginia.


RECENT COVERAGE OF B.1.351

The P.1 Lineage

A variant referred to as 20J/501Y.V3 is from the P.1 lineage, an offshoot of the bigger B.1.1.28 lineage.

The variant was first reported in Japan, in 4 individuals who contracted P.1 on a visit to Brazil. The lineage emerged in late 2020 in Manaus, the most important metropolis in Brazil’s Amazon area. It rapidly turned the predominant variant there and in a number of different South American cities.

P.1 is an in depth relative of the B.1.351 lineage, and it has a few of the identical mutations on the coronavirus spike protein. It could possibly overcome the immunity developed after an infection by different variants.






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Mutations within the

P.1 LINEAGE

variant P1 600

Mutations within the

P.1 LINEAGE

variant P1 335

Mutations within the

P.1 LINEAGE


KEY MUTATIONS IN P.1

Key mutations within the spike protein are much like these within the B.1.351 lineage, though they arose independently:

N501Y, which helps the virus latch on extra tightly to human cells. This mutation additionally seems within the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 lineages.

K417T, which is similar web site because the K417N mutation within the B.1.351 lineage. It may assist the virus latch on tighter.

E484K, which can assist the virus evade some sorts of antibodies.





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Key mutation

within the P.1 spike

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Key mutations

within the P.1 spike

(prime view)


WHERE P.1 HAS BEEN FOUND

P.1 was found in December and reached the United States in January, however it might have been circulating as early as October in Manaus, Brazil. It has now unfold to a number of international locations.





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P.1 detected,

usually in a traveler

map P1 countries 720

map P1 countries 600

map P1 countries 335


P.1 has been detected in two states: Minnesota and Oklahoma.


PREVIOUS COVERAGE OF MANAUS AND P.1

Mutations of Concern

Single mutations that will make the coronavirus extra infectious, or assist it keep away from antibodies.

The D614G Spike Mutation

The D614G mutation emerged in japanese China early within the pandemic after which rapidly unfold around the globe, displacing different coronaviruses that didn’t have the mutation.






mutation D614G 900

Location of the

D614G

MUTATION

mutation D614G 600

Location of the

D614G

MUTATION

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Location of the

D614G

MUTATION


The D614G mutation is believed to make the coronavirus extra infections, but it surely doesn’t seem to make the illness extra extreme or assist the virus escape vaccines.





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D614G is so widespread that it has been omitted from different graphics on this web page.

PREVIOUS COVERAGE OF D614G

The N501Y Spike Mutation

The N501Y mutation arose independently in a number of variants of concern, together with the B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1 lineages.






mutation N501Y 900

Location of the

N501Y

MUTATION

mutation N501Y 600

Location of the

N501Y

MUTATION

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Location of the

N501Y

MUTATION


The mutation is close to the tip of the coronavirus spike, the place it appears to alter the form of the protein to be a tighter match with human cells.






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The N501Y

spike mutation

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The N501Y

spike mutation

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PREVIOUS COVERAGE OF N501Y

The E484K Spike Mutation

The E484K mutation arose independently in a number of lineages, together with B.1.351 and P.1. Scientists are additionally involved that the mutation was lately present in some samples from the B.1.1.7 lineage from Britain.






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Location of the

E484K

MUTATION

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Location of the

E484K

MUTATION

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Location of the

E484K

MUTATION


The mutation happens close to the highest of the coronavirus spike, the place it alters the form of the protein. This change might assist the spikes evade some forms of coronavirus antibodies.





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The E484K

spike mutation

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The E484K

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WHERE E484K HAS BEEN FOUND

E484K has been present in Brazil, Britain, the United States, Canada and Argentina.

RECENT COVERAGE OF E484K

The L452R Spike Mutation

The L452R mutation shouldn’t be widespread within the United States, but it surely has lately unfold in California, particularly within the Los Angeles space.






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Location of the

L452R

MUTATION

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Location of the

L452R

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mutation L452R 335

Location of the

L452R

MUTATION


The mutation seems in a number of lineages, and was first noticed in Denmark in March. It’s doable that the L452R mutation provides the coronavirus a bonus at spreading over different variants, however the outcomes of experiments that can display which have but to return.





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The L452R

spike mutation

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The L452R

spike mutation

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WHERE L452R HAS BEEN FOUND

Roughly 45 % of present samples in California present this mutation.

RECENT COVERAGE OF L452R

Other Variants within the News

These variants haven’t but been proven to be extra infectious.

The CAL.20C Variant

A variant found in California, known as CAL.20C, surged in late 2020. The variant spans the B.1.427 and B.1.429 lineages, and carries the L452R mutation listed above. But it’s not but clear whether or not it’s extra infectious.

WHERE CAL.20C HAS BEEN FOUND

By early February, the variant was present in more than half of samples tested in Los Angeles.

PREVIOUS COVERAGE OF CAL.20C

Sources: Bedford Lab, University of Washington; Andrew Rambaut et al. and Nuno R. Faria et al., Virological; Houriiyah Tegally et al., medRxiv; Paul A. Offit et al., Journal of the American Medical Association; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; GISAID; SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Spike protein mannequin from Ward Lab, Scripps Research. Cahill-Keyes map projection by Gene Keyes.

Tracking the Coronavirus


Source Link – www.nytimes.com

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