Between the Nineteen Thirties and the early Nineteen Fifties, Manhattan’s 52nd Street (additionally referred to as “Swing Street,” or just “The Street”) was the hub of the metropolis’s nightlife. The road was residence to iconic efficiency venues together with the Downbeat, The Three Deuces, Charlie Parker’s Birdland, Famous Door, Kelly’s Stable, Spotlight, Jimmy Ryan’s, Club Samoa, Club Carousel, The Onyx, The 21 Club (the sole remaining membership), and The Hickory House. The space was handy to musicians as a result of of its proximity to Broadway, the place many had different gigs. It was additionally near the studios of CBS Radio, the place performers usually guested, and Sarah Vaughan starred on nationwide reveals.
William Gottlieb started writing a jazz column for The Washington Post when he was a school senior in 1938. By the mid-Forties he was a writer-photographer for Downbeat journal and in addition shot for some of the nation’s hottest weekly magazines. Gottlieb wrote a guide referred to as The Golden Age Of Jazz, and in 1995 donated his assortment of jazz photographs to the Library Of Congress. This assortment represents the ambiance and sophistication embodied in what turned generally known as the Golden Age of Jazz. Stacker reviewed Gotlieb’s assortment and picked out 30 gorgeous photographs providing a consultant view of that historic period and its main gamers.
Musicians and vocalists together with the likes of Miles Davis, Stan Kenton, Cab Calloway, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk, Ella Fitzgerald, Coleman Hawkins, Sarah Vaughan, Billie Holliday, Lionel Hampton and Charlie Parker himself headlined at these nightspots. “The Street” gained nationwide prominence through reside broadcasts by a disc jockey named Sidney Tarnopol (“Symphony Sid”). For a time, Tarnopol headquartered his program at Birdland.
The coterie of headliners who performed 52nd Street steadily headed uptown with their devices after gigs to Minton’s Playhouse in Harlem, a modest after-hours diner. There they’d have the jam periods the place they workshopped their new sonic kind—”bebop.” Once the foundations had been laid for this revolutionary, quickly paced style, 52nd Street turned the unofficial bebop (or “bop”) capital of the world.
Leading the bop vanguard stylistically and in affect had been trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, pianist Mary Lou Williams, pianist Monk, and drummer Max Roach. One impetus behind bop was setting a tempo that was almost unattainable for pretenders to acceptable. Bop artists felt their runaway chord constructions and unpredictable adjustments helped them safe gigs, studio work, and band positions that in any other case might have been occupied by copycats. In the late Nineteen Fifties and early Nineteen Sixties, the pattern of city renewal pressured New York City jazz to unfold geographically—or shutter altogether. The style additionally misplaced peak reputation amongst the younger hipsters, to folks, soul, the Beat Generation, and finally, the British Invasion exemplified by The Beatles. The final conventional jazz spot there closed its doorways in 1968; the 21 Club exists solely as a bar and restaurant now.
Gottlieb’s photographic treasure actually encapsulates a 20-year run between the finish of Prohibition and the music’s migration to different sections of Manhattan—one of which was Greenwich Village. Continue studying to get a snapshot of the Golden Age of Jazz.
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- Swing shot
- Deuces Wild
- Rhythm royalty
- Bop quiz
- Progressive chords
- On borrowed time
- Bird is again
- Lady’s day
- Hamp’s stomp
- Abstraction distraction
- Vamping with Viv
- Dizz and Fitz
- The Hi Dee Ho Man
- Smooth King
- Showtime at the Apollo
- A Symphony With Sidney
- Miles to go
- On the city
- Club collage
- Divine intervention
- Uptown workshop
- Titans of tempo
- Kenton’s Wunderkind
- Slide present
- Blue interlude
- Birth of bebop
- Passing the torch
- Paul plugs in
- Pet sounds
This picture captures the neon collage of 52nd Street in New York City, circa 1948. The vantage level is from the south facet of 52nd Street, between Fifth and Sixth avenues, wanting west. The Three Deuces marquis declares saxophonist Charlie Parker headlining with Max Roach on drums.
Patrons collect at The Three Deuces on 52nd Street in New York City to take pleasure in a invoice of bassist Oscar Pettiford and drummer J.C. Heard with flashy pianist Erroll Garner, circa 1948.
Bandleader Duke Ellington and drummer Sonny Greer are seen in motion at the Aquarium nightclub in New York City, circa November 1946. The Ellington group was one of the tightest bands in the U.S.—a lot so, its members referred to as Ellington “Old Grumpy” and “The Headbanger”—behind his again of course.
Here we discover a younger Miles Davis and Ray Brown again trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie at the Downbeat membership in New York City, whereas a pre-Modern Jazz Quartet John Lewis accompanies on piano, and Cecil Payne performs on baritone sax. This photograph was taken between 1946 and 1948 throughout the daybreak of bebop.
Bandleader Stan Kenton and sax participant Bob Gioga commiserate earlier than a showbill asserting Kenton’s large band (circa 1947 or 1948). By 1947 Kenton had expanded his orchestra to twenty members, showcasing what he termed “progressive jazz.” His arranger was Pete Rugolo, later well-known for his work scoring “Leave It To Beaver” and “The Fugitive.”
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On borrowed time
Louis Armstrong is seen at Carnegie Hall in New York City, circa April 1947, holding Bobby Hackett’s trumpet, as Armstrong’s instrument had simply been stolen. Armstrong was half of the first presentation of jazz at Carnegie Hall.
Bird is again
On the event of Charlie Parker’s 1947 return to 52nd Street, “Bird” performs at the Three Deuces in New York City with Tommy Potter on upright bass, Duke Jordan at the piano, and Miles Davis on trumpet. This gig was a 12 months after Parker’s six-month rehab stint in California’s Camarillo State Mental Hospital.
Billie Holiday sings in New York City at Downbeat, circa February 1947. Lady Day’s coiff seems shorter on this picture, and if she is sporting her trademark gardenia in her hair, it is on the different facet.
Bandleader and vibraphonist Lionel Hampton and saxophonist Arnett Cobb play at New York City’s Aquarium nightclub, circa June 1946. The Aquarium was located at West forty seventh Street and Seventh Avenue. In that period, the Aquarium, the Downbeat, The Stork Club, The Three Deuces, and Jimmy Ryan’s had been distinguished midtown venues.
Six “Modern School” arrangers, Neal Hefti, George Handy, Ralph Burns, Johnny Richards, Eddie Sauter and Edwin A. Finckel, pose for a photograph at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, circa March 1947. The works of Pablo Picasso and Henry Moore are on the partitions round them.
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Vamping with Viv
Vivien Garry performs at Dixon’s in New York City, circa May 1947, with Teddy Kaye and guitarist Arvin Charles Garrison, Garry’s husband. Garry additionally led the Vivien Garry Quintet, through which she was the bassist.
Dizz and Fitz
Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Milt “Bags” Jackson, Timmie Rosenkrantz, and Ray Brown gig at the Downbeat in New York City, circa September 1947. It was in Dizzy’s band that “The First Lady Of Jazz” actually turned a scat singer, influenced by the syncopation of bebop. The 30-year-old Fitzgerald additionally recorded “Oh, Lady Be Good!” that 12 months.
The Hi Dee Ho Man
Bandleader Cabel “Cab” Calloway is pictured in New York City, circa January 1947. Calloway was the flamboyant pioneer of the scat-singing style, which helped start hip-hop. He attended Lincoln University with fellow Baltimore native Thurgood Marshall. Calloway additionally popularized the loose-fitting zoot go well with.
Pianist Nat King Cole is pictured at the piano in New York City, circa June 1947. Before he was a silky solo crooner, Cole was an excellent slide pianist main The King Cole Trio. Several years later he turned the first Black particular person to host a nationwide TV present.
Showtime at the Apollo
Arnett Cobb and his band share the invoice with “Big” Sid Catlett and his group at the Apollo Theatre in Harlem, New York City, between 1946 and 1948. Catlett was a legendary drummer, who performed in Sarah Vaughan’s band. His namesake son Sid Catlett was a basketball star at Notre Dame.
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A Symphony With Sidney
This shot of Sidney Bechet, Freddie Moore, and Lloyd Phillips was taken at Jimmy Ryan’s membership in midtown Manhattan, circa June 1947. Bechet, a clarinetist and sax participant with an infamously erratic temperament, is taken into account a father of jazz and was one of the firsts to document a solo jazz document.
Miles to go
A younger Miles Davis is captured observing trumpeter Howard McGhee in New York City, circa September 1947. Davis moved from his native Illinois to attend the Juilliard School however dropped out when he realized he discovered extra by watching and sitting in with fellow musicians in the metropolis’s jazz golf equipment.
On the city
A nightclub singer performs at a venue on midtown Manhattan’s 52nd Street (circa 1948), which was the hub of postwar jazz nightlife, and residential to venues corresponding to Birdland, Jimmy Ryan’s, Famous Door, The Club Carousel, The Onyx, and Spotlight. It was known as “Swing Street,” or just “The Street.”
The south facet of 52nd Street is pictured right here, wanting west from between Fifth and Sixth avenues. The shot, taken circa July 1948, reveals Samoa Club, Jimmy Ryan’s, the Onyx, Tony’s, the Club Carousel, and The Three Deuces, the place Erroll Garner is headlining with Oscar Pettiford and J.C. Heard.
Sarah Vaughan sings at Cafe Society in New York City, circa August 1946. Nicknamed “Sassy,” and “The Divine Sarah Vaughan,” the Newark native was 22 when this photograph was taken. She was found 4 years earlier by piano legend Earl “Fatha” Hines whereas she was coming into expertise contests at Harlem’s Apollo Theater. She started her solo profession in 1945 on 52nd Street at The Three Deuces, the Famous Door, the Onyx, and the Downbeat.
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Bebop pianist Thelonius Monk and trumpeter Howard McGhee are pictured at Minton’s Playhouse in Harlem, New York City, circa September 1947. Minton’s was an after-hours restaurant the place musicians corresponding to Monk experimented with the fast, syncopated scales that turned bebop, or “bop.” The gamers upped these tempos to forestall different musicians from having the ability to acceptable their fashion.
Titans of tempo
Pianist Art Tatum and bandleader and arranger Phil Moore stand exterior Downbeat on 52nd Street in New York City, someday between 1946 and 1948. In the late Forties, Moore toured with an ensemble referred to as The Phil Moore Four (that includes Milt Hinton on bass). Moore helped jumpstart singer/actress Dorothy Dandridge’s profession. Tatum influenced everybody from Ray Charles and Bud Powell to Charlie Parker, Mary Lou Williams, and Herbie Hancock.
Bandleader Stan Kenton and Buddy Childers are pictured right here in Richmond, Virginia, in 1947 or 1948. Childers was a trumpeter and composer, who is just 21 or 22 right here. Kenton requested him to hitch his band at age 16. Kenton’s arranger in 1947 and 1948 was future TV and movie composer Pete Rugolo.
Pianist James P. Johnson performs with Freddie Moore at William P. Gottlieb’s workplace occasion in Jamaica, Queens, New York City, circa 1948. Johnson was an early vanguardist of slide piano. “Slide” was a divergent style from “rag”(time)—extra bluesy and free swinging, with an interaction between the proper and left arms.
Trumpeter Bunk Johnson, blues singer Huddie “Leadbelly” Ledbetter, and Alcide Pavageau carry out at Stuyvesant Casino in New York City, circa June 1946. Johnson suffered a stroke in 1948, and died the following 12 months. Leadbelly wrote the political anthem “Bourgeois Blues,” and popularized the tunes “Goodnight, Irene,” “Midnight Special,” and “Boll Weevil.”
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Birth of bebop
Pioneering pianist Mary Lou Williams is pictured at CBS Radio studio in New York City, circa April 1947. Williams, 37 right here, hosted a weekly radio present referred to as “Mary Lou Williams’ Piano Workshop.” She headlined at Cafe Society in Manhattan throughout this era, and mentored the likes of Thelonious Monk and Dizzy Gillespie in the nuances of early bebop.
Passing the torch
Tenor sax king Coleman “Bean” Hawkins and Miles Davis are pictured at 52nd Street nightspot the Three Deuces, circa July 1947. Miles had simply turned 21 when this photograph was taken. He dropped out of Juilliard two years earlier, changing Dizzy Gillespie in Charlie Parker’s quintet. In 1947 he was enjoying in Billy Eckstine’s band. Hawkins was a headliner at Kelly’s Stables on 52nd Street.
Paul plugs in
Innovative guitarist Les Paul is pictured in New York City, circa January 1947. Paul helped invent and popularize the electrical guitar and toured with The Andrews Sisters in 1946. A 12 months after this photograph, Paul was in a life-threatening auto accident. Unable to rebuild his injured elbow, doctors fused Paul’s elbow at a 90-degree angle to permit him to proceed enjoying guitar—at his request.
Bebop percussion ace Max Roach hams it up at 52nd Street’s Three Deuces nightclub, circa October 1947. Roach, solely 23 right here, performed in Dizzy Gillespie’s band. Five years earlier than this date, he subbed for Sonny Greer in Duke Ellington’s band, at Manhattan’s Paramount Theater. Roach was one of bebop’s first acknowledged drummers.
Billie Holiday is captured backstage together with her boxer Mister, at 52nd Street’s Downbeat membership, circa February 1947. At this time, Mildred Bailey was the characteristic performer 1 / 4 mile away at The Blue Angel.
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