US

103 Women Who Broke Barriers Over the Last 103 Years

The nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1920 to offer ladies the proper to vote. Since then, ladies have been elected to authorities roles in rising numbers, culminating in 2021 with the first girl sworn in as vp of the United States.

Politics is not the solely discipline the place ladies have damaged by way of obstacles, after all. In 1944, Ann Baumgartner Carl turned the first feminine take a look at pilot. In 1953, aviator Jacqueline Cochran was the first girl to interrupt the sound barrier. And in 1999, Lt. Col. Eileen Collins turned the first girl astronaut to pilot and command a NASA area shuttle mission. Women even have been appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court and directed big-budget, award-winning Hollywood movies.

The time period “glass ceiling” dates again to 1839 when French feminist writer George Sand used a phrase translating to “impenetrable crystal vault” whereas discussing the way it felt to be a girl wanting greater than her anticipated social function. Since then, the time period has been used to explain the invisible societal barrier that stops ladies from reaching the similar management positions, political places of work, and pay charges as males.

Using data from news reports, historic governmental websites, and “Rad American Women A-Z,” by Kate Schatz, Stacker compiled an inventory of 100 trailblazing ladies who shattered glass ceilings, proving that preventing for a greater society is just not solely worthwhile however potential. On this checklist are Pulitzer Prize-winning authors, entrepreneurs, completed attorneys, devoted service members, and plenty of extra inspiring ladies.

Click by way of to see what number of trailblazers you acknowledge from the previous 100 years.

You may additionally like: Women who broke barriers throughout military history

Madam CJ Walker
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Contents

1919: Madam C. J. Walker turns into a millionaire

Madam C. J. Walker, born Sarah Breedlove, was reportedly was the first Black girl to turn into a millionaire on her personal. She began promoting hair-straightening merchandise for black ladies in 1906; by the time she died in 1919, her enterprise was worth at least $1 million.

Also in 1919, actress Mary Pickford turned the first girl to co-own a manufacturing studio. She co-founded United Artists with Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith, and Douglas Fairbanks.

1920: Marie Luhring turns into an automotive engineer

Marie Luhring in 1920 turned the first girl in the United States to become an automotive engineer. She went on to turn into the first female truck designer. She labored with Mack Truck Co. and established herself as one in every of the greatest designers in the enterprise.

1921: Bessie Coleman earns worldwide pilot’s license

American aviator Bessie Coleman earned her worldwide pilot’s license in 1921, the first Black girl to take action. Since U.S. flight faculties would not educate ladies of coloration—she was additionally half Native American—Coleman realized French and went to Europe to get her license. Known as “Queen Bessie,” she got here again to the United States and carried out daring stunts like spins, dives, and loop-the-loops.


Also in 1921, Edith Wharton turned the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for literature for The Age of Innocence. There was an argument round the prize not as a result of Wharton was a girl, however as a result of the Pulitzer jury had chosen one other ebook: Main Street, by Sinclair Lewis. The Pulitzer board overturned the jury’s determination.

Rebecca Latimer Felton
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1922: Rebecca Latimer Felton appointed senator

In 1922, Georgia’s Democratic Gov. Thomas Hardwick—who had beforehand voted in opposition to ladies’s suffrage—planned to run for the Senate and wished to attraction to ladies voters. He determined to nominate Rebecca Latimer Felton, 87, to a vacant seat. She held the place for less than 24 hours earlier than handing it over to the newly elected Walter George. Felton remains to be the solely girl senator Georgia has ever had.

1923: Florence King wins US Supreme Court case

Florence King held a lot of firsts: In 1897, she turned the first feminine patent legal professional; in 1918, she turned the first feminine vp of the Women’s Bar Association of Chicago; in 1922, she turned the first girl to argue a patent case earlier than the U.S. Supreme Court. A 12 months later, she turned the first girl to win a case earlier than the excessive court docket, Crown vs. Nye. She died of breast most cancers in 1924.

1924: Nellie Tayloe Ross elected governor

On Nov. 4, 1924, Nellie Tayloe Ross turned the first girl elected governor in the United States when she was elected for the title in Wyoming. She received the most votes one month after her husband died of appendicitis, which left the place vacant. Ross was formally inaugurated in January the subsequent 12 months.

1925: Miriam “Ma” Ferguson elected governor of Texas

Nellie Tayloe Ross beat out Miriam “Ma” Ferguson as the nation’s first girl governor by a few weeks. Ferguson was sworn in as the first girl governor of Texas 15 days after Ross took workplace. Ferguson, a former Texas first woman, ran for the place after her husband was impeached, convicted, and faraway from workplace as governor. Among different issues, Ross expressed vocal opposition to the Ku Klux Klan.

Gertrude Ederle
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1926: Gertrude Ederle swims the English Channel

Covered in grease and carrying a two-piece swimsuit, Gertrude Ederle got down to turn into the first woman to swim the 21-mile-long English Channel on Aug. 6, 1926. At the time, folks did not suppose it was bodily potential for a girl to swim that far. Ederle proved them flawed and accomplished the feat—her second try—in 14 hours and 31 minutes, beating the beforehand held file by two hours. Two years earlier, Ederle nabbed a gold and two bronze medals in Paris at the Olympic Games.

1927: Phoebe Omlie earns her transport pilot license

In 1927, Phoebe Omlie, a recent of Amelia Earhart, turned the first woman to get a transport pilot license and an airplane mechanic license. The subsequent 12 months she was the first girl to fly throughout the Rocky Mountains in a lightweight plane.

1928: Amelia Earhart flies throughout the Atlantic

An aeronautic famous person, Amelia Earhart on June 17, 1928, turned the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. Along with two different pilots, Earhart traveled from Canada to England. President Calvin Coolidge nicknamed Earhart “Lady Lindy” after fellow American pilot Charles Lindbergh.

Another 1928 first: Genevieve R. Cline was the first woman appointed as a judge to the U.S. Customs Court.


1929: Janet Gaynor wins an Oscar
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1929: Janet Gaynor wins an Oscar

Hollywood held the inaugural Academy Awards on May 16, 1929. Janet Gaynor was the first woman to win an Academy Award for Best Actress. By 1934, she was the highest-paid actress in Hollywood.

1930: Emma Fahning bowls an ideal rating

Emma Fahning turned the first girl to bowl an ideal 300 in a sanctioned sport. She earned the rating for the Germain Cleaning Team in Buffalo, New York.

1931: Jane Addams wins Nobel Peace Prize

Jane Addams, a college-educated “New Woman,” was the first American girl to win the Nobel Peace Prize; she shared it with Nicholas Murray Butler. Addams, who cared for the less fortunate and promoted ladies’s suffrage, in 1919 helped to discovered the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.

1932: Earhart flies solo throughout the Atlantic

On May 20, 1932, Amelia Earhart piloted her red Lockheed Vega throughout the Atlantic Ocean, making her the first girl—and solely the second individual since Charles Lindbergh—to make the nonstop flight alone. Earhart flew 15 hours from Canada to Northern Ireland. She additionally turned the first girl to be vice president of the National Aeronautic Association, convincing the group to ascertain separate feminine information as a result of ladies did not have equal money and time to place towards flying, which made it unfair to have them compete in opposition to males. She additionally made a line of practical clothes for girls, a few of which she sewed and modeled herself.

Frances Perkins
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1933: Frances Perkins appointed to presidential cupboard

President Franklin D. Roosevelt selected Frances Perkins as secretary of labor, the first girl to be appointed to a cupboard place. Perkins was very important to the planning and creation of the New Deal, which helped pull the nation out of the Great Depression. She outlined insurance policies together with the 40-hour work week, minimal wage, Social Security, and unemployment funds. She additionally helped ban youngster labor.

1934: Coca-Cola brings Lettie Pate Whitehead as director

Coca-Cola Co. appointed Lettie Pate Whitehead (Evans) to its board of administrators in 1934, making her the first girl to carry a director place at the company. Her husband, Joseph B. Whitehead, who was one in every of the authentic bottlers of Coca-Cola, died at an early age. During her life, Whitehead Evans donated thousands and thousands of {dollars} to tutorial, arts, and medical organizations. In 1945, she created the Lettie Pate Evans Foundation.

1935: Regina Jonas ordained as rabbi

In Germany in 1935, Regina Jonas turned the first girl in the world ordained as rabbi. While she went to high school with different ladies, she was at the time the only female to pursue the rabbinical track and wrote her dissertation particularly on why ladies must be rabbis. She was ordained by the Germany’s Liberal Rabbis’ Association, however the nation’s Orthodox rabbinate didn’t formally acknowledge her standing. She died at Auschwitz a decade later.

1936: Harvard Medical School accepts Fe del Mundo

Fe del Mundo received a scholarship from Philippine President Manuel Quezon, which granted her entry to any faculty in the United States. Del Mundo utilized to Harvard Medical School, regardless that it wasn’t accepting ladies college students. In 1936, she turned the first girl accepted, though Harvard hadn’t initially realized they’d accepted a feminine and assigned her to a male dorm. Del Mundo turned the first feminine president of the Philippine Pediatric Society and the first girl to be elected president of the Philippine Medical Association.

1937: Grace Hudowalski climbs the Adirondacks

In 1937, the 31-year-old Grace Hudowalski turned the first girl to hike to the top of all 46 High Peaks in the Adirondack Mountains. Before her, eight males had completed the feat. Hudowalski began the Adirondack Forty-Sixers. In 2014, the highest peak was named after the expert climber. It is now referred to as “Grace Peak.”

Pearl S. Buck
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1938: Pearl S. Buck wins Nobel Prize in Literature

Author Pearl S. Buck won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1938, the first girl to win the award. Buck was a staunch advocate of civil and girls’s rights. She wrote in opposition to racism and discrimination, along with her work often showing in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People’s Crisis journal and the National Urban League’s Opportunity.


1939: Kitty O’Brien Joyner turns into NACA’s first girl engineer

In September 1939, Kitty O’Brien Joyner became the first woman engineer at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (later renamed NASA) Memorial Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. She was additionally the first feminine to graduate from the University of Virginia’s Engineering Program when she gained admission after submitting a lawsuit in opposition to UVA for less than having males of their engineering faculty.

1940: Hattie McDaniel earns an Oscar

Hattie McDaniel turned the first black girl—and first black individual awarded an Oscar— when she gained the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her function as Mammy in Gone with the Wind. McDaniel had to accept the award at a segregated hotel that she might solely attend as a result of producer David O. Selznick known as in a favor. It took 51 years for an additional black actress to take house an Oscar. Whoopi Goldberg gained Best Supporting Actress in 1991 for her function in Ghost.

Margaret Bourke-White
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1941: War photographer Margaret Bourke-White is deployed

In 1941, Margaret Bourke-White took her digicam to battle zones and became the first female war photographer. She labored for each Life Magazine and the U.S. Air Force and survived a torpedo assault whereas on a ship to North Africa. Bourke-White stays one in every of the greatest photojournalists in historical past—male or feminine.

1942: Mildred McAfee turns into Navy line officer

In 1936, Mildred McAfee turned president of Wellesley College. On Aug. 3 1942, she left that place and have become the Navy’s first female line officer, commissioned as a lieutenant commander in the Naval Reserve. At the similar time, she turned director of the Navy’s Women’s Reserve. She helped develop the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) group to over 80,000 Navy ladies. She was promoted to the rank of captain solely after Congress handed laws permitting ladies to obtain the title.

1943: Euphemia Lofton Haynes earns a PhD in arithmetic

In 1943, Euphemia Lofton Haynes turned the first Black woman to receive a doctorate in mathematics. Haynes earned her diploma at Catholic University in Washington D.C. She taught in the public faculty system in the nation’s capital for 47 years.

1944: Ann Baumgartner Carl pilots a jet

Inspired by Amelia Earhart, Ann Baumgartner Carl realized to fly in 1940 whereas serving in the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) throughout World War II. She later turned the first and only female test pilot. On Oct. 14, 1944, she turned the first American girl to fly a jet airplane: the turbo-jet powered Bell JP-59A.

1945: Elizabeth Peratrovich helps cross anti-discrimination laws

In 1945, Elizabeth Peratrovich helped pass anti-discrimination legislation that she had pushed for. She testified about the second-class therapy of Alaskan natives and the way that additionally affected her kids and others in her group. The legislation was handed nearly twenty years earlier than the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In Alaska, Feb. 16 is called Elizabeth Peratrovich Day. She was additionally the chief of the Alaska Native Sisterhood.

Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini
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1946: Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini named a saint

In 1946, Pope Pius XII made Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini a saint, the first American girl to be canonized. She was really born in Italy, however later turned a U.S. citizen.

1947: Gerty Cori wins Nobel Peace Prize in medication

Gerty Cori was the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine; she shared the prize along with her husband. The couple found the Cori cycle, which explains how cells use meals and convert it to power by way of the muscle tissue. Their analysis led to improvement of therapies for diabetes. The couple researched many tasks collectively, although Gerty’s husband received most of the recognition.

1948: Esther Blake joins the Air Force

On July 8, 1948, the 51-year-old Esther Blake enlisted in the U.S. Air Force. She was the first girl to take action. The U.S. Air Force turned a separate division after President Harry Truman created the Department of Defense in 1947. Women had been accepted to the Women’s Air Force beginning in July the following 12 months. Blake was first in line. She had joined the Women’s Army Corps in 1944 when her oldest son’s airplane was shot down and he went lacking throughout World War II.


1949: Arelene Francis hosts a sport present

On May 5, 1949, Arlene Francis became the first woman to host a game show on television. Francis hosted Blind Date, which initially began as a matchmaking radio present, till 1952. She went again to radio in 1961 and hosted The Arlene Francis Show for nearly three a long time. Francis led the method for The Golden Girls actress Betty White, who first appeared on a sport present in 1955 and earned the nickname “The First Lady of Game Shows” by the Nineteen Eighties. In 1983, White was the first girl to win a Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Game Show Host.

Gwendolyn Brooks
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1950: Gwendolyn Brooks earns Pulitzer Prize in Poetry

In 1950, author and poet Gwendolyn Brooks turned the first black person awarded the Pulitzer Prize. Brooks obtained the poetry prize for Annie Allen. That similar 12 months, Hazel Scott turned the first black girl to host her personal tv present, The Hazel Scott Show.

1951: Paula Ackerman conducts rabbinical providers

From 1951 to 1953, Paula Ackerman served as Temple Beth Israel’s religious chief. She wasn’t formally a rabbi, however she was the first girl to carry out rabbinical duties in a mainstream American Jewish congregation.

1952: NAACP will get its first girl president

Despite being behind the scenes, Ella Baker—whose grandmother was born a slave—was an vital chief in the civil rights movement. She labored with each the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and Rosa Parks, and helped set up the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. In 1952, she turned the first female president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

1953: Jacqueline Cochran breaks the sound barrier

Aviator Jacqueline Cochran was the first woman to fly faster than Mach 1. Cochran broke the sound barrier on May 18, 1953, in an F-86 Sabre. She went on to set a world pace file of 1,429 mph in 1964. She continued to interrupt information into her 60s.

1954: Jewel L. Prestage earns a doctorate in political science

Jewel L. Prestage earned her doctorate at the University of Iowa when she was solely 22. Prestage turned the first Black girl—and one in every of the youngest folks—to earn a doctorate from a division of political science at an American college. She went on to chair Southern University’s division of political science for nearly twenty years, pushing for extra black teachers. She was the first individual to focus her research on black women legislators.

1955: Marian Anderson performs at the Met
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1955: Marian Anderson performs at the Met

In her late 50s, Marian Anderson became the first black soloist to sing at New York’s Metropolitan Opera on Jan. 7, 1955. Anderson helped pave the method for Black performers in classical music. About three weeks later, baritone Robert McFerrin turned the first Black man to carry out a solo at the Met.

On April 9, 1969, Anderson sang “My Country, Tis of Thee,” on the National Mall in entrance of the Lincoln Memorial as a result of Constitution Hall, which was owned by the Daughters of the American Revolution, would not let a Black girl sing in the constructing. The group later apologized to the singer.

1956: First Black girl admitted to white college

In 1952, Autherine Lucy utilized to the University of Alabama, however she was rejected as a result of the faculty did not settle for Black college students. Two years later, the U.S. Supreme Court dominated in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka that segregation in faculties was unconstitutional. On Feb. 3, 1956, Lucy turned the first Black student to attend an all-white university. She wasn’t allowed to reside on campus or eat in the cafeteria. She confronted discrimination with crowds of white folks chasing, screaming, and throwing issues like rotten produce at her. The police escorted her house and college officers voted to droop her—for her personal security—from attending the faculty.

With help from the NAACP, Lucy tried to get again into the faculty, submitting contempt-of-court fees in opposition to the faculty, which in the end expelled Lucy. The college did not take away her expulsion till 1988. Lucy later enrolled in the graduate program in schooling and obtained her grasp’s diploma in 1992 from the college.

1957: Althea Gibson wins Wimbledon

Before Venus and Serena Williams dominated tennis, Althea Gibson paved the way. In 1957, Gibson turned the first Black girl to win a championship at Wimbledon. Tennis legend Billie Jean King known as Gibson “the Jackie Robinson of tennis,” noting Gibson’s inspiration to black gamers who would observe in her footsteps.

1958: First Black girl engineer begins at NASA

Mary Winston Jackson turned NASA’s first female Black engineer in 1958. To take courses that certified her for the place, she needed to get permission from the City of Hampton to attend courses at the then-segregated Hampton High School.

1959: Arlene Pieper finishes a marathon
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1959: Arlene Pieper finishes a marathon

Arlene Pieper became the first woman to finish a marathon when she accomplished the Pikes Peak Marathon in 1959. Unlike the Boston Marathon, this race by no means barred ladies from competing; officers simply did not suppose a girl would ever do it. Race director Ron Ilgen stated organizers figured ladies might run the 13.3 miles up the mountain, however they did not suppose they’d have the power to run again down.

1960: Wilma Rudolph nets three Olympic gold medals
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1960: Wilma Rudolph nets three Olympic gold medals

As a toddler, Wilma Rudolph had polio and scarlet fever. At one level, her physician advised her she would possibly by no means stroll once more. Rudolph did not simply stroll, she turned a world-class athlete. She earned the title of “fastest woman in the world” when she took house three gold medals—and broke three world information—in observe and discipline at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome. She was the first American woman to win three medals in a single year at the Olympics. She used her standing as an athlete to make clear civil rights points and refused to attend her homecoming parade except it was built-in. In 1990, Randolph turned the first girl awarded the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s Silver Anniversary Award.

1961: Dana Ulery lands a job at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

In 1961, the pc scientist Dana Ulery turned the first female engineer at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Ulery was the solely girl to carry that place for the subsequent seven years. She was additionally amongst the first ladies managers at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory.

1962: Dolores Huerta lobbies for migrant staff

In 1962, Dolores Huerta co-founded the United Farm Workers union with fellow activist Cesar Chavez. Huerta was raised in Stockton, California, and was the first girl in U.S. historical past to recruit, set up, foyer, and negotiate on behalf of migrant staff. In 1965, Huerta and Chavez helped set up the Delano grape strike, a five-year boycott of California desk grapes that resulted in higher wages and dealing situations for migrant staff.

Valentina Tereshkova
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1963: Valentina Tereshkova heads to area

Russian cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova as soon as stated: “If women can be railroad workers in Russia, why can’t they fly in space?” On June 16, 1963, Tereshkova did simply that. She piloted the Soviet space capsule Vostok 6, spending three days in area and orbiting Earth 48 occasions. While she remained energetic in the area group, this was her solely mission away from Earth.

That similar 12 months, Katharine Graham became publisher of The Washington Post, the first girl in that place at a significant newspaper. In 1971, Graham made the determination to publish the Pentagon Papers.

1964: Geraldine ‘Jerrie’ Mock flies solo journey round the world

April 18, 1964, was the day Geraldine “Jerrie” Mock became the first woman to fly around the world alone. The well-known ill-fated try by Amelia Earhart came about in 1937. Mock made the journey in a 1953 Cessna 180 single-engine monoplane nicknamed “The Spirit of Columbus,” and earned the Federal Aviation Administration’s Exception Service Decoration, offered by President Lyndon B. Johnson.

1965: Dr. Helen Taussig elected president of the American Heart Association
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1965: Dr. Helen Taussig elected president of the American Heart Association

Dr. Helen Taussig obtained the Medal of Freedom from President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. The following 12 months, Taussig turned the first female president of the American Heart Association. Taussig is most effectively referred to as the founding father of pediatric cardiology: She created a technique to surgically function and deal with a congenital coronary heart defect referred to as “blue baby” syndrome. Her work led to modern-day grownup open-heart surgical procedure.

1966: Bobbi Gibb runs the Boston Marathon
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1966: Bobbi Gibb runs the Boston Marathon

After Bobbi Gibb accidentally ran about 25 miles from California to Mexico, she determined to enter the Boston Marathon. The solely race she might run for girls was restricted to 1.5 miles. Officials rejected her software, however she ran the race anyway, donning her brother’s shorts and tennis sneakers made for boys.

1967: Kathrine Switzer enters the Boston Marathon

In 1967, Kathrine Switzer, 20, entered the Boston Marathon as Ok.V. Switzer. When she was a couple of miles into the male-dominated race, an official tried to take away her. At the time, ladies had been thought of “too fragile” to run the race, Switzer stated. Her participation modified the method folks considered ladies’s bodily endurance talents. Women’s marathoning turned an Olympic sport in 1984.

1968: Shirley Chisholm is elected to Congress

In 1968, voters from a redrawn district of New York elected Democrat Shirley Chisholm to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1972, Chisholm turned the first black woman to seek the nomination of president for a major party. She was initially barred from taking part in presidential main debates. After authorized motion, she was allowed to offer one speech. She co-founded the National Women’s Political Caucus in 1971, and in 1977 turned the first black girl—and second girl ever—to serve on the House Rules Committee. She spent seven phrases in Congress advocating for girls and minority rights.

1969: Diane Crump competes in sanctioned horse race
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1969: Diane Crump competes in sanctioned horse race

After the 1968 Civil Rights Act, Olympic equestrian rider Kathy Kusner turned the first girl to get her jockey’s license. Male rivals boycotted, refusing to race in opposition to her. A 12 months later, the 20-year-old Diane Crump competed in a sanctioned pari-mutuel race in the United States, the first girl to take action. Armed guards escorted her to the race, during which she completed tenth out of 12.

1970: Diane Crump competes in the Kentucky Derby

In 1970, Diane Crump turned the first female jockey to compete in the Kentucky Derby. She by no means gained the Derby, however she continued to compete in horse racing till 1985.

1971: First ladies pages start work in the Senate

In 1971, the Senate broke a 150-year-old tradition by appointing ladies to the Senate web page program. Ellen McConnell Blakeman fought for the opportunity when she was solely a 16-year-old junior in highschool. She was appointed by Illinois Sen. Charles Percy. Two different senators adopted go well with and appointed feminine pages: Paulette Desell-Lund and Julie Price.

Rabbi Sally J. Priesand
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1972: Sally Priesand is ordained as a rabbi

Sally Priesand turned the first American woman ordained as a rabbi on June 3, 1972. Alfred Gottschalk, president of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in Cincinnati, Ohio, carried out the service. While Priesand’s mother and father inspired her objective, academics and classmates discouraged her from pursuing the rabbinate. Since Priesand’s ordination, practically 1,000 ladies have turn into rabbis.

1973: Patsy Cline inducted into Country Music Hall of Fame

Singer Patsy Cline died in 1963 in a airplane crash together with fellow nation musicians Cowboy Copas and Hawkshaw Hawkins; she was solely 30. A decade later, Cline turned the first solo female artist inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame.

1974: Capt. Rosemary Mariner flies a tactical jet

Capt. Rosemary Mariner completed plenty of army firsts, together with being a part of the firstclass of feminine aviators in the Navy in 1973. A 12 months later, when she was solely 21, she turned the first woman to fly a tactical fighter jet. In later years, she was amongst the first ladies to serve aboard a U.S. Navy warship. She additionally helped repeal the fight exclusion restrictions on ladies.

1975: Junko Tabei summits Mt. Everest
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1975: Junko Tabei summits Mt. Everest

When Junko Tabei stood atop Mount Everest in 1975, she went in opposition to Japanese gender norms and left her 3-year-old daughter along with her husband so she might obtain her mountaineering desires. Before making an attempt the summit, she based the Ladies Climbing Club, a primary in Japan. She began the all-female membership as a result of she did not like how she was handled by male climbers. In 1992, she turned the first girl to overcome the “Seven Summits”—the tallest peak on every continent.

In 2016, Melissa Arnot turned the first American girl to finish the ascent and descent of Mount Everest with out supplemental oxygen. In 1998, Francys Arsentiev made the ascent, however she died on her method down.

1976: Pilot Emily Howell Warner joins Frontier Airlines
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1976: Pilot Emily Howell Warner joins Frontier Airlines

Emily Howell Warner turned a pilot for Frontier Airlines solely after she demanded an interview and accomplished a simulator test journey—a take a look at that often wasn’t required. She co-piloted her first flight in 1974, and on June 6, 1976, she turned the first female captain for a major airline. In 1986, she transferred to Continental Airlines, the place she commanded the first all-women flight crew.

Also in 1976, President Gerald Ford named Shirley Temple Black—the former youngster star—the first woman U.S. chief of protocol. In 1988, she turned an honorary U.S. overseas service officer. President Bill Clinton as soon as stated of Black that “she has to be the only person who both saved an entire movie studio from failure and contributed to the fall of communism.”

1977: Janet Guthrie races in the Indianapolis 500

Janet Guthrie, a physicist and aerospace engineer, was a pioneer for feminine racecar drivers. In 1977, she turned the first woman to compete in the Indianapolis 500. In 1976, Guthrie stated, males did not suppose ladies had the power, endurance, or emotional stability to race. She proved them flawed and paved the method for drivers like Danica Patrick, who turned the first girl to guide in the Indy 500 in 2005.

1978: Gen. Mary E. Clarke turns into two-star common

Ret. Gen. Mary E. Clarke turned the first woman to achieve the rank of two-star general in the U.S. Army. Clarke was the final director of the Women’s Army Corps, which was shut down in 1978 when ladies had been built-in into the Army. She was put in command of Fort McClellan, the first girl in control of a significant army set up.

Ann Meyers
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1979: Ann Meyers signed to the NBA

The Indiana Pacers signed Ann Meyers to a one-year contract in 1979, making her the first girl signed by an NBA team. They lower her seven days after she signed. Some male gamers did not take it critically, saying it was just a publicity stunt.

1980: Paula Hawkins is elected to Senate

Republican Paula Hawkins of Florida turned the first girl elected to the U.S. Senate who did not have a husband or member of the family tied to the workplace. In her 1980 campaign, she described herself as female however not feminist; she opposed abortion rights and the Equal Rights Amendment, placing her at odds with the National Organization for Women. She solely served one time period and stays the solely feminine senator elected from Florida.

That similar 12 months, Betty Ellis—a linesman for the North American Soccer League—turned the first girl to officiate in a major sports league in the United States or Canada.

1981: Sandra Day O’Connor nominated to Supreme Court

In 1981, Sandra Day O’Connor turned the first woman justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. O’Connor went to Stanford University when she was solely 16. She served in the state Senate and was a Maricopa County Superior Court Judge. President Ronald Reagan nominated her for the highest court docket in the land.

1982: First woman-designed memorial on the National Mall
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1982: First woman-designed memorial on the National Mall

When Maya Lin was a 21-year-old structure scholar at Yale University, she entered and gained a contest to design a memorial for the American troopers who died in the Vietnam War. In 1982, Lin turned the youngest individual and the first woman to design a memorial on the National Mall. Although Lin objected to a few of the adjustments to her design, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial—the reflective wall that lists the names of fallen service members—is the most visited monument in Washington D.C.

1983: Sally Ride is shipped into area

Sally Ride turned the first American woman and youngest astronaut to fly in space on June 18, 1983, aboard the area shuttle Challenger. Ride was a flight engineer and later labored as a physicist and physics professor at the University of California, San Diego. She additionally served on the advisory board of the National Women’s History Museum.

1984: Barbra Streisand wins a Golden Globe for steering

In 1984, Barbra Streisand turned the first girl to win a Golden Globe for Best Director. Streisand accepted the award for her work on Yentl. Women still remain underrepresented in most gender-neutral classes in Hollywood awards exhibits; in 2021, Chloe Zhao turned the second girl to ever have gained the Golden Globe for Best Director, for her work on Nomadland.

1985: Penny Harrington turns into chief of police

Penny Harrington turned chief of police in Portland, Oregon, in 1985. This marked the first time a girl held the prime spot at a significant police division. Harrington had a lot of other firsts: first feminine detective, first feminine sergeant, first feminine lieutenant, first feminine captain. As chief, she gave ladies extra entry to precincts, patrol automobiles, and promotions.

1986: Oprah Winfrey owns, produces her own talk show
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1986: Oprah Winfrey owns, produces her personal speak present

When she was 19, Oprah Winfrey turned the youngest and first Black anchor for WTVF-TV in Nashville. In 1986, Winfrey had a nationwide syndication deal for her namesake present in Chicago. Winfrey turned the first woman to own and produce her personal speak present, which ran for 25 years. In 2003, the billionaire media mogul turned the first Black girl on Forbes journal’s “World’s Richest People” checklist.

1987: Aretha Franklin elected to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame
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1987: Aretha Franklin elected to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame

When the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame began in 1986, solely males might be inducted. The corridor honored Aretha Franklin in 1987, the first girl to obtain such recognition. Another 56 women have followed in her musical footsteps, together with Etta James in 1993 and Gladys Knight in 1996.

In 1987 political firsts: Barbara Mikulski turned the first girl elected to the U.S. Senate in her personal proper and never as a result of a partner had died.

1988: Shawna Robinson wins NASCAR race
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1988: Shawna Robinson wins NASCAR race

Iowan Shawna Robinson turned the first woman to win a NASCAR-sanctioned race in 1988. In her Pontiac Sunbird, Robinson raced in the 100-lap Charlotte Daytona Dash at New Asheville Speedway. Many female drivers have entered NASCAR since then.

(*103*)1989: Barbara Clementine Harris ordained as bishop in Episcopal Church
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1989: Barbara Clementine Harris ordained as bishop in Episcopal Church

In 1989, Barbara Clementine Harris turned the first girl ordained as a bishop in the Episcopal Church. In 1976, the Episcopal Church voted to confess ladies as clergymen, but it surely wasn’t till 1988 that the U.S. Episcopal Church voted to elect Harris as bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Eastern Massachusetts.

1990: Sharon Pratt Dixon elected mayor of Washington D.C.
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1990: Sharon Pratt Dixon elected mayor of Washington D.C.

In 1990, Sharon Pratt Dixon was elected mayor of Washington D.C. She turned the first black girl to function mayor of a significant U.S. metropolis, and her insurance policies supported black and Hispanic enterprise possession.

1991: Dr. Geraldine Morrow heads the American Dental Association

Alaskan dentist Dr. Geraldine Morrow turned the first woman president of the American Dental Association in 1991. She was additionally the first feminine trustee of the ADA, a time period she started in 1984.

1992: Mae Jemison travels to space
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1992: Mae Jemison travels to area

Mae Jemison turned the first black woman in space on Sept. 12, 1992. She flew on the area shuttle Endeavour together with six different astronauts. In 2017, Lego created a toy set in honor of Jemison and fellow astronaut, Sally Ride. The astronomer and educator Nancy Grace Roman and pc scientist Margaret Hamilton additionally had been featured.

1993: Janet Reno becomes US attorney general
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1993: Janet Reno turns into US legal professional common

In 1993, President Bill Clinton appointed Janet Reno as the U.S. legal professional common, the first girl to carry the place. She turned the longest-serving legal professional common in the twentieth century. Since Reno, solely two different ladies—Loretta Lynch and Sally Yates—have held the job. Yates was dismissed after solely 10 days when she refused to defend President Donald Trump‘s controversial journey ban.

Other notable firsts of 1993: Toni Morrison turned the first Black girl to win a Nobel Prize for literature and U.S. Sen. Barbara Mikulski of Maryland inspired the “Pantsuit Rebellion” when she wore pants onto the Senate flooring. In 2004, First Lady Hillary Clinton turned the first girl to put on pants in her official White House portrait.

1994: Judith Rodin becomes permanent president of UPenn
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1994: Judith Rodin turns into everlasting president of UPenn

Judith Rodin was the first woman to become president of an Ivy League university when she was chosen to guide the University of Pennsylvania. She later turned president of the Rockefeller Foundation.

1995: Roberta Cooper Ramo turns into president of the American Bar Association

Before 1995, the American Bar Association had by no means had a feminine president. Roberta Cooper Ramo modified that when she turned the first girl to guide the ABA. In the Nineteen Sixties, Ramo was one in every of solely six ladies in her legislation faculty class. In 2016, ladies made up more than half of all legislation faculty college students.

1996: Dominique Dawes wins Olympic medal in gymnastics
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1996: Dominique Dawes wins Olympic medal in gymnastics

Dominique Dawes made historical past at the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta when she gained a bronze medal, changing into the first black individual to win a person occasion medal in gymnastics. Two years earlier, she was named Sportsperson of the Year by USA Gymnastics.

1997: Ellen DeGeneres comes out
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1997: Ellen DeGeneres comes out

A little bit over 20 years in the past, Ellen DeGeneres turned the first openly gay television star. While her sitcom was canceled, DeGeneres has hosted her personal speak present since 2003, hosted the Oscars twice, and voiced the cartoon fish Dory in Finding Nemo. In 2017, President Barack Obama gave her the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

1998: Ila Borders pitches on pro men's baseball team
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1998: Ila Borders pitches on professional males’s baseball workforce

In the summer season of 1998, lefthander Ila Borders turned the first girl to pitch on a professional men’s baseball team. While she got here near enjoying in Major League Baseball, she in the end did not obtain an invite to check out at spring coaching. Borders wasn’t the first woman to play baseball on knowledgeable males’s workforce—Toni Stone performed for the Negro League’s Indianapolis Clowns in 1953—however Borders was the first to pitch and performed the longest.

1999: Lt. Col. Eileen Collins instructions NASA area shuttle

In July 1999, Lt. Col. Eileen Collins turned the first feminine astronaut to pilot and command a NASA area shuttle mission. She led the STS-93 flight of the shuttle Columbia. Pamela Melroy adopted in her footsteps when she commanded the STS-120 mission of Discovery in 2007.

2000: Capt. Kathleen McGrath instructions Navy warship

In 2000, Capt. Kathleen McGrath took command of a U.S. Navy warship with a 262-member crew, the first girl to take action. It was six years after Congress lifted the guidelines that prohibited ladies from serving on fight plane and warships. Women had served in the Navy on help vessels since 1978, but it surely wasn’t till 1994 that they had been allowed on warships.

Clinton 2001
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2001: Hillary Clinton elected to US Senate

Hillary Clinton was the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate from New York. She was re-elected in 2006, profitable 64 p.c of the vote. Clinton later declared her candidacy for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination, however she misplaced to then-U.S. Senator Barack Obama, who selected her to be secretary of state. She secured the presidential nomination in 2016, however misplaced the election to Donald Trump.

2002: Halle Berry wins Academy Award for Best Actress

Over 60 years after Hattie McDaniel turned the first Black girl to win an Oscar, Halle Berry made historical past by changing into the first Black girl to win an Academy Award for Best Actress. Berry says her milestone hasn’t made much of a difference for girls of coloration in Hollywood, an trade dominated by white males. She stays the solely Black girl to obtain the award.

2003: Teresa Phillips coaches males’s Division I faculty basketball

The 12 months 2003 was major for female firsts in sports. In February, Teresa Phillips turned Tennessee State’s head basketball coach, the first girl coach of a Division I males’s basketball workforce in NCAA historical past. That similar month, Hayley Wickenheiser turned the first girl to attain in a males’s skilled hockey sport. In April, goaltender Ginny Capicchioni turned the first girl to compete in the National Lacrosse League.

2004: Phylicia Rashad takes home a Tony
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2004: Phylicia Rashad takes house a Tony

Actress Phylicia Rashad made Tony Award history when she turned the first Black girl to win for Best Actress in a Play. She gained for her function as Lena Younger, the matriarch in Broadway’s model of A Raisin in the Sun.

2005: Condoleezza Rice becomes secretary of state
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2005: Condoleezza Rice turns into secretary of state

In 2004, President George W. Bush nominated Condoleezza Rice as secretary of state. Rice assumed the workplace in 2005, changing into the first Black girl to carry the job. She stayed in the place for 4 years earlier than heading again to show at Stanford University. In 1993, she was the youngest individual, first girl, and the first Black individual to turn into provost at Stanford.

2006: Violet Palmer officiates NBA game
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2006: Violet Palmer officiates NBA sport

In 2006, Violet Palmer turned the first woman to officiate an NBA game. She spent 18 seasons on the court docket. In 2018, Danielle Scott and Angelica Suffren adopted in her footsteps, marking the first time two Black women refereed an NBA game at the similar time.

2007: Nancy Pelosi elected speaker of the House
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2007: Nancy Pelosi elected speaker of the House

Nancy Pelosi joined Congress in 1987. Thirty years later, she turned the first woman elected by her peers to be the Speaker of the House of Representatives. In 2019, Pelosi reclaimed the position and presides over the Democrat-controlled House.

2008: Gen. Ann E. Dunwoody becomes four-star general
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2008: Gen. Ann E. Dunwoody turns into four-star common

Gen. Ann E. Dunwoody became a four-star general in 2008, the first girl to carry the rank in the U.S. armed forces. Dunwoody stated she’s never worked for a woman, however lots of her male superiors have been advocates all through her profession. She retired in 2012.

2009: Sonia Sotomayor takes her seat on the Supreme Court
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2009: Sonia Sotomayor takes her seat on the Supreme Court

In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor turned the first Hispanic affiliate justice—and third girl—to take a seat on the U.S. Supreme Court. Sotomayor had already made historical past when she turned the first Hispanic federal decide in New York.

2010: Kathryn Bigelow wins Oscar for Best Director
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2010: Kathryn Bigelow wins Oscar for Best Director

In 2010, Kathryn Bigelow became the first woman to win an Academy Award for Best Director for The Hurt Locker, defeating her ex-husband, James Cameron, who was up for the similar award for Avatar. While Hollywood motion pictures are nonetheless largely made by white males, the share of feminine administrators has doubled since 2013. About 12 p.c of movies that made greater than $250,000 in 2017 had been directed by ladies. At the similar time, the share of minority filmmakers has decreased by 7 p.c.

2011: Angella Reid becomes White House usher
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2011: Angella Reid turns into White House usher

Under President Barack Obama, Angella Reid became the first woman—and second Black person—to work as a White House usher, a job that entails working intently with the first household and overseeing all actions in the White House residence. Reid lost the position in 2017 when the Trump administration determined to not hold her on.

2012: Shannon Eastin officiates NFL game
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2012: Shannon Eastin officiates NFL sport

In August 2012, Shannon Eastin became the first woman to officiate an NFL sport when she served as the line judge at the preseason opener between the Green Bay Packers and San Diego Chargers. Eastin received the NFL alternative when she was chosen as a substitute official throughout a time when the common refs had been locked out.

2013: Mary Barra becomes CEO of GM
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2013: Mary Barra turns into CEO of GM

In an auto trade feminine first, General Motors named Mary Barra the firm’s chief government officer in 2013. Barra’s appointment got here after a slew of male-dominated firms had put ladies in the prime spot. In 2012, Marissa Mayer turned CEO and president of Yahoo. Also in 2013, Marillyn Hewson turned president and CEO of the protection contractor Lockheed Martin.

2014: Mo'ne Davis pitches Little League shutout
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2014: Mo’ne Davis pitches Little League shutout

Mo’ne Davis began enjoying baseball as a child. At 13, whereas enjoying for Philadelphia’s Taney Youth Baseball Association, she turned the first lady to pitch a shutout and win a sport in the Little League World Series. When she graduates from high school in 2019, she is going to head to Hampton University in Virginia to play softball. She advised the New York Times that she selected a predominately black faculty so she might play with ladies “who look like me or who grew up kind of the same way I grew up.”

In different 2014 firsts: Janet Yellen turned the first woman to chair the Federal Reserve in its 100-year historical past. She held the place till Feb. 3, 2018.

2015: Jen Welter becomes NFL coach
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2015: Jen Welter turns into NFL coach

Jen Welter made historical past when she became a coach for the Arizona Cardinals. In 2015, Welter turned the first girl to carry the place in the NFL. She holds a doctorate in psychology and performed soccer in the ladies’s league for 15 years.

Also in 2015, two ladies—Capt. Kristen Griest and 1st Lt. Shaye Haver—had been the first feminine troopers to complete U.S. Army Ranger School. As of 2018, 12 women had completed the course.

2016: Hillary Clinton wins Democratic nomination for U.S. president
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2016: Hillary Clinton wins Democratic nomination for U.S. president

In 2016, Hillary Clinton—a former first woman, U.S. senator, and secretary of state—was the first woman to win a major party’s nomination for president. While Clinton, a Democrat, did not win the election, she helped encourage a feminine presidential nominee.

Also in 2016, Ava DuVernay turned the first black girl to direct a movie, A Wrinkle In Time, with a finances over $100 million.

2017: Danica Roem is elected to U.S. legislature
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2017: Danica Roem is elected to U.S. legislature

Democrat Danica Roem turned the first openly transgender person to be elected to a U.S. state legislature. She defeated Republican Bob Marshall, who had crafted anti-trans laws. In leisure information, Lena Waithe turned the first black girl to win an Emmy for comedy writing.

2018: First Muslim women elected to Congress
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2018: First Muslim ladies elected to Congress

In 2018, extra ladies ran for governor, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the U.S. Senate than at another time in historical past. Among the history-making 90 ladies heading to the House, there have been quite a lot of firsts. While Democrats Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib turned the first Muslim women elected to Congress, 29-year-old Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez turned the youngest girl ever elected to the House.

2019: Greta Thunberg became the face of climate-change activism demanding action on climate change
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2019: Greta Thunberg turned the face of climate-change activism demanding motion on local weather change

Swedish 16-year-old Greta Thunberg took up the mantle of management of local weather activism in 2018 when she started protesting in her native Sweden and all through Europe. Thunberg takes politicians to process for not doing sufficient to fight local weather change. In 2019, the activist set sail for New York—she refuses to fly—to carry her message to local weather summits in North America.

Also in 2019, an assistant professor at the California Institute of Technology, Katie Bouman, turned the first individual to {photograph} a black gap, and California Rep. Nancy Pelosi, the first feminine elected speaker of the House, regained the place in 2019, changing into the first lawmaker to carry the workplace twice in over 50 years.

2020: Kathrin Jansen leads development of Pfizer vaccine
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2020: Kathrin Jansen leads improvement of Pfizer vaccine

Kathrin Jansen, Pfizer‘s senior vp and head of vaccine analysis, had a way again in January 2020 of simply how again the COVID-19 outbreak might turn into. She was proper, and located herself main the cost of greater than 700 researchers to develop a vaccine. Pfizer and Moderna each launched scientific trials of their respective vaccines on July 27; Pfizer was permitted for emergency authorization Dec. 11; Moderna adopted shut behind on Dec. 18.

2021: Kamala Harris sworn in as first woman VP
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2021: Kamala Harris sworn in as first girl VP

On Jan. 20, 2021, Kamala Harris was sworn in as the first girl, first Asian American, and first Black vp of the United States. She previously served as district legal professional of San Francisco, California’s legal professional common, and a U.S. senator.

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